IPA Awardees for July 2014

Teodoro C. Mendoza
Crop Science Cluster
College of Agriculture
UP Los Baños

A Value Chain Analysis of Sugar Production : Its Implications on R&D and Supportive National Industrial  Policy. Asia Life Sciences, 23 (2): 507-531, July-December 2014.

For the Philippine sugar industry to improve , a supportive  National Industrial Policy (NIP) has a big and distinct role .As an agro-based industry, the sugar industry is machine/equipment (basic and precision equipment)- intensive.  On the cane production (input)-side, “industrial” products are necessary inputs (i.e. machines – tractors) .The logistic side of production needs to be addressed in crafting the NIP. Production is related to R/D and the people doing R/D. The National Industrial Policy must also address the welfare of those who perform scientific investigations (researchers) and produce creative / unique technology that enhances productivity. The NIP should look into the S and T manpower requirements of the country. The value chain analysis affirmed the mills and farms interdependencies.In the farm, the 4 major determinants of sugarcane yield (land preparation, variety, timing of planting and fertilizer) had been emphasized to increase cane yield. Land preparation is most critical as it determines the time to plant, the soil environment that affects germination, early tillering, weed growth, and water retention during the dry months .Location adapted and longer ratooning cultivars and better ratooning practices must be  adopted by farmers.  In sugar processing, inefficient  sugar mills must be  upgraded  or  repaired to improve sugar recovery  to motivate farmers to grow and deliver quality canes to the mills . Regarding specifics,  sugarcane yield should be  increased in a given mill district to supply the needed canes of the sugar mill .Improved sugar recovery  by  the mill ,in turn, is necessary  so the farm investments to increase cane yields could be repaid back by the farmers. If the mill invest 1 peso for upgrading to improve efficiency, the  farm needs to invest  1peso and sixty centavos  for  the  farm implements and production inputs  to increase yield  and  haul sufficient  canes  to the mill .

Link to the article: http://www.journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/1230
Impact Factor: 0.18

Athenee B. Pacardo-Mercado
Department of Social Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Los Baños

Women at Work: Women on a “Balance Beam”-The Case of Selected Women Workers in San Pascual, Batangas Province, Philippines. Asia Life Sciences, 22 (2): 605-634, July-December 2013.

The increasing need to help augment the family’s income pushes more and more women to actively engage in paid employment. However, culture dictates that even with the added responsibility of having to financially provide for the family, women are still expected to take care of the household needs, from child rearing to household chores. Over-burdened with having to fulfill both productive and reproductive work, women learn to develop internal strategies that help them cope with the ever persisting demands of work. Through an internalized “balance beam,” women constantly struggle in shouldering multiple roles while keeping peace and harmony in the family. Nevertheless, the changing status of women as co-contributor in the family income has somehow led them to learn to assert their position in the household through negotiation with their husbands. This process of negotiation then serves as a setting that manifests women’s increasing bargaining power in the relationship. Thus adjustment strategies become a catalyst for empowerment of working women.

 

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/950
Impact Factor: 0.18

Michelle Marie S. Villamayor and Henry J. Ramos
National Institute of Physics
College of Science
UP Diliman

Transparent ZnO Thin Film Deposition by a Compact Planar Magnetron Plasma Device. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 53, (5S1): 05FU02, 4 pages, May 2014.

A 120mm diameter by 80mm compact planar DC magnetron device capable of maintaining a pure H2O discharge was used to deposit conducting transparent ZnO thin film on glass substrates via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). A square Zn target with an area of 55 X 55mm2 placed at the cathode was sputtered by argon-oxygen plasma at 100mA discharge current and %550 to %680V discharge potential. Gaseous H2O was introduced into the system as a source of reactive oxygen at 600mPa in addition to argon fed at 100 mPa. For the deposition duration of 3, 5, and 7 min, the thickness measured was 21.5, 15, and 16 nm, respectively. The interface between the glass and oxide layer was dependent on the deposition duration—smooth for the 3-min deposition and rough for the 5 and 7 min durations. FTIR and UV–vis shows % transmittance for UV, visible, and IR is inversely proportional to deposition time. The thin films exhibited electrical conductance.

Link to the article: http://iopscience.iop.org/1347-4065/53/5S1/05FU02
2013/2014 Impact Factor: 1.057

Michelle Marie S. Villamayor, Maricor N. Soriano and Henry J. Ramos
National Institute of Physics
College of Science
UP Diliman

Color-based Tracking of Plasma Dust Particles. Physics of Plasmas, 21 (2): 023703-1, 4 pages, February 2014.

Color-based tracking to observe agglomeration of deposited particles inside a compact planar magnetron during plasma discharge was done by creating high dynamic range (HDR) images of photos captured by a Pentax K10D digital camera. Carbon erosion and redeposition was also monitored using the technique. The HDR images were subjected to a chromaticity-based constraint discoloration inside the plasma chamber indicating film formation or carbon redeposition. Results show that dust deposition occurs first near the evacuation pumps due to the pressure gradient and then accumulates at the positively charged walls of the chamber. This method can be applied to monitor dust formation during dusty plasma experiments without major modification of plasma devices, useful especially for large fusion reactors.

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: 2.376

Vachel Gay V. Paller
Institute of Biological Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Los Baños

Dynamics of Centrocestus armatus Transmission in Endemic River in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Tropical Medicine and Health, 42 (1): 35-42, 18 February 2014.

Centrocestusarmatus is an intestinal parasite belonging to the family Heterophyidae. We developed an apparatus for recovering cercariae and clarified the infection dynamics of this parasite. To clarify the circadian rhythm of cercarial shedding in the summer season, we filtrated 30 l of river water every 2 h for 24 h. Cercariae were first detected between 06:00 and 08:00 h, increased over time to reach peak at 16:00 h and decreased thereafter, thus showing a single-peak pattern. In a survey of seasonal change, approximately 200 cercariae were contained in 1 l of river water during the summer season, while none were found during the winter. This cercarial shedding pattern appeared to be related to sunrise/sunset and water/atmosphere temperature. Therefore, we examined whether cercarial shedding was affected by light or temperature changes under laboratory conditions, and confirmed that both light and temperature were important factors for cercarial shedding. Light was a stronger factor than water temperature. Cercarial shedding of C. armatus occurred in response to temperature and light. The change in the number of juvenile metacercariae detected in fish brain corresponded with monthly detection rates of cercariae; however, the incidence of new infections decreased in August. This suggests that Nipponocypristemminkii contains a defense mechanism against new infections that may have hindered the increase in parasite infectivity. These results clarified the smooth infection from the first to the second intermediate host of C. armatus in the endemic river. Throughout the study period, fecal samples were collected from 19 kites, 114 herons, and three unidentified species. However, our results using C. armatus showed a low value of 1% in herons and 5% in kites. The infection dynamics of final host to first intermediate host need to be further investigated.

Link to the article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3965844/
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla, Andrew F. Torres, Josephine Angela DG. Cañasa, Sandra L. Yap and Perry S. Ong
Institute of Biology
College of Science
UP Diliman

State of Animal DNA Barcoding in the Philippines: A Review of COI Sequencing of Philippine Native Fauna . Philippine Science Letters, 7 (1): 104-137, 23 April 2014.

A 648-bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI), the gold standard in animal DNA barcoding, is used as a tool in the identification of species as well as the development of proper conservation strategies and management. This paper reviews the current state of DNA barcoding of native animal species in the Philippines by collecting COI profiles of Philippine specimens in GenBank. The collection included 2,646 entries, representing 715 animal species were obtained. This is a miniscule sample considering the megadiversity status of the Philippines, which has a reported species assemblage of more than 50,000 species. Based on the review, two patterns emerged: (1) DNA barcoding of Philippine native animals focused on insects, gastropods, bony fish, and birds; and (2) nearly 60% of Philippine native species barcoded were generated by laboratories in Canada and the USA. These findings emphasize the need for a more extensive and comprehensive DNA barcoding coverage of Philippine species, proportionate to its megadiversity status as well as contribute to the representation of Philippine diversity in the global baseline. This can partly be addressed by the active participation of more Philippine institutions and researchers in DNA barcoding efforts.

Link to the article: http://philsciletters.org/2014/PSL%202014-vol07-no01-p104-137%20Fontanilla.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

John Carlo B. Reyes* and Windell L. Rivera
College of Medicine*
College of Science
UP Manila*
UP Diliman

Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 79 (3): 337-341, July 2014.

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the 2-kbp repeated DNA species-specific sequence was developed for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were evaluated using pooled genital swab and urine specimens, respectively, spiked with T. vaginalis trophozoites. Genital secretion and urine did not inhibit the detection of the parasite. The sensitivity of the LAMP was 10–1000 times higher than the PCR performed. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 trichomonad for both spiked genital swab and urine specimens. Also, LAMP did not exhibit cross-reactivity with closely-related trichomonads, Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis, and other enteric and urogenital microorganisms, Entamoeba histolytica, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of a LAMP assay for the detection of T. vaginalis and has prospective application for rapid diagnosis and control of trichomoniasis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0732889314001266
2013/2014 Impact Factor: 2.568

Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret
Institute of Aquaculture
College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences
UP Visayas

The Influence of Different Stocking Densities on the Performance and Behavior among the Hatchery Reared Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer) Juveniles in Recirculating System. ABAH Bioflux, 6 (2): 125-133, July-December 2014.

The statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS Software Program for Windows, Version 16.0 at the end of the rearing period. All data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among treatments were compared by the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) and considered significant at P<0.05. Survival was calculated using the arcsin square root.

Link to the article: http://www.abah.bioflux.com.ro/docs/2014.125-133.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Floirendo Flores
Institute of Food Science and Technology
College of Agriculture
UP Los Baños

Physical and Storage Properties of Spray-dried Blueberry Pomace Extract with Whey Protein Isolate as Wall Material. Journal of Food Engineering, 137: 1–6, September 2014.

Blueberry anthocyanins were extracted with ethanol and microencapsulated with whey protein isolate via spray drying. The chemical properties of the powder were evaluated upon storage. The anthocyanin content decreased with increasing storage temperature, but the phenolics content increased to approx. 2.5 times of the original. The antioxidant capacity increased by 10%. The results show that the microencapsulated anthocyanins may serve as a functional food ingredient. 

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S026087741400154X
Impact Factor: (2013/2014) 2.576

Rene C. Batac
National Institute of Physic
College of Science
UP Diliman

Observing Spatio-Temporal Clustering and Separation Using Interevent Distributions of Regional Earthquakes. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 21 (4): 735-744, July-August 2014.

When earthquakes happen, we expect to have aftershocks that cluster in space (i.e. near the mainshock) and time (i.e. within minutes to days from the main event). After all the energy has been released, the next main event will happen either at a different (far away) location or after a relatively long time. In this work, we were able to show these two types of behavior – clustering of aftershocks and separation of main events – using only the statistics of successive event separations in space and time.

 

 

Link to the article: http://www.nonlin-processes-geophys.net/21/735/2014/npg-21-735-2014.pdf
Impact Factor: (2013/2014) 1.692

Susan May F. Calumpang, Marcela M. Navasero, Gideon Aries S. Burgonio and   Mario V. Navasero
Crop Protection Cluster
College of Agriculture
UP Los Baños

Repellency of Volatile Organic Chemicals of Kakawate, Glyricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp., To Rice green Leaf Hopper, Nephotettix virescens (Distant) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Philippine Agricultural  Scientist, 97 (2): 148-154, June 2014.

The study of chemical ecology, particularly involving pheromones and other semiochemicals (repellents, attractants, stimulants and deterrents) that influence insect behavior, promises methods of pest control as alternatives to the exclusive use of broad-spectrum toxicants.  However, if the potential of semiochemicals in crop protection is to be realized, a greater understanding of insect/plant interactions and insect chemical ecology generally is essential.  Semiochemicals, when employed alone, often give ineffective or insufficient robust pest control.  Use of semiochemicals should therefore be combined with other approaches in integrated management strategies.  The main components of such strategies are pest monitoring, to allow accurate timing of pesticide treatments; combined use of semiochemicals, host plant resistance and trap crops, to manipulate insect behavior; selective insecticides or biological control agents, to reduce pest populations (Pickett et al. 1997). Repellents emitted by plants in the ecosystem can be utilized to reduce insect pest populations. Planting hedgerow species, reported to have a repellent chemistry, adjacent to host species may interfere with olfactory cues used by insect pests (Altieri et al. 1977).  This approach will reduce the use of insecticides as it will explain the mechanism for insect population reduction thereby strengthening farmer extension activities and at the very best provide additional farmer options for organic agriculture. A deeper understanding of the chemically-mediated behavior of insects would lead to the development of an IPM component in crop production.  Kakawate, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp., is a leguminous tree and belongs to the family Fabaceae. Gliricidia, which originated in Central America, is used in many tropical and sub-tropical countries as live fencing. That is, it is planted along the side of fields, and the trunks are used as fence posts. During the dry season, when much of the forage is gone, the tree limbs are cut and the foliage is offered to livestock. In sub-Saharan Africa, kakawate is intercropped with maize (Makumba et al. 2006). Kakawate is reported to have insecticidal properties (Grainge and Ahmed 1988; Méndez-Bautista et al. 1993; Montes-Molina et al. 2008). In particular, it is reported as a mosquito repellent (Nazli et al. 2008) and also has antifungal and antimicrobial properties (Rahalison et al. 1993).  A new isoflavan, 7,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxyisoflavan has been isolated from the insecticidally active extract of the heartwood of G. sepium  (Herath et al. 1998). 

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: (2013/2014) 0.368

Emmanuel M. Luna
Community Development
College of Social Work and Community Development
UP Diliman

“Disaster Management International Lessons inRisk Reduction, Response and Recovery” in Community-based Disaster Risk and Disaster Management. Alejandro Lopez-Carresi, Maureen Fordham, Ben Wisner, Ilan Kelman and JC Gaillard (editors). New York, USA: Routledge, 2014.

Ma. Luisa T. Camagay
Department of History
College of Social Science and Philosophy
UP Diliman

“Salud Algabre: A Forgotten Member of the Philippine Sakdal” in Women in Southeast Asian Nationalist Movements. Susan Blackburn and Helen Ting (editors). Singapore: National University of Singapore Press, 2013. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press, 2013.

Aurelio A. de los Reyes V
Institute of Mathematics
College of Science
UP Diliman

Stabilizing Control for a Pulsatile Cardiovascular Mathematical Model. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 76 (6): 1306-1332, June 2014.

A pulsatile model for the cardiovascular system, which describes its reaction to a submaximal constant workload imposed on a person at a bicycle ergometer test after a period of rest, is developed. The model allows using measurements for the pulsatile pressure in fingertips that provide information on the diastolic and the systolic pressure. Assuming that the baroreceptor is the essential control loop, a stabilizing feedback control is designed. The behavior of the model with respect to changes in the weight term in the cost functional for the linear- quadratic regulator problem penalizing the deviation of the momentary pressure in the aorta from the pressure at the stationary situation is investigated.

Link to the article: http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11538-014-9958-2
Impact Factor: (2013/2014) 1.292

Alfred F. Pawlik and Armand Salvador B. Mijares
Archaeological Studies Program
UP Diliman

“Modern Humans in the Philippines: Colonization, Subsistence and New Insights into Behavioral Complexity” in Southern Asia, Australia and the Search for Human Origins. Robin Dennell and Martin Porr (editors). New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Sherlyne Almonte-Acosta
College of Education
UP Diliman

“The Consequences of Changing Education Policies on Social Inequality: The Case of Japan” in Integration and Inequality in Educational Institutions. Michael Windzio (editor). New York, USA: Springer, 2013.

Rodel R. Real, Sylvia B. Concepcion, Marilou O. Montiflor, Jerick T. Axalan and     Ruby Jane G. Lamban
School of Management
UP Mindanao

Impact of Collaborative Marketing on Vegetable Production Systems: The Case of Clustering in the Southern Philippines. Acta Horticulturae, 1006: 303-308, September 2013.

Problems faced by smallholder vegetable farmers are inappropriate choice of varieties, high cost of inputs, weather disturbance, and the supply and demand situation. In 2008, the University of the Philippines Mindanao conducted a project which used the Catholic Relief Services (CRS) framework on clustering. Clustering is an 8-step strategy which aimed to assist farmers in agroenterprise development. Although the strategy was primarily focused on marketing, one of aims was to improve production systems. The project focused on providing appropriate farming practices, low-cost input management protocol, and access to trainings. This paper explored the impact of clustering on the vegetable production systems of farmer clusters in Davao City, Bukidnon and South Cotabato. Key informant interviews, project documents and survey of cluster members were gathered. Through clustering, farmers were able to adopt and share farming technologies. The use of superior varieties resulted to: drop in pesticide application,  marketable yield increase, value of production increase, and improved market acceptability. They also implemented production management protocol and strategies provided by support agencies. It included reduction of chemical application, product shift (from low to high value crops), intercropping, and crop rotation. The clusters also built rain shelters and established communal farms to ensure continuous vegetable supply. Around 71% of cluster members surveyed attributed the increased volume of vegetables to strong support organizations, collaboration among members and lowered production cost. Cluster members devised effective production management protocol such as product diversification, non-chemical pest and disease control and technology sharing.

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Jerick T. Axalan, Sylvia B. Concepcion, Marilou O. Montiflor, Ruby Jane G. Lamban and Rodel R. Real
School of Management
UP Mindanao

Social Capital and Trust in Collaborative Marketing Groups: The Case of Vegetable Clusters in the Southern Philippines. Acta Horticulturae, 1006: 79-84, September 2013.

Social capital is defined  as networks, institutions and trust that enable members of a community to more effectively pursue shared objectives (Putnam 2000). Well-organized farmers’ associations are better equipped to learn about new technology, farming methods and crops.  However, without trust, social capital cannot develop. This paper aimed to examine social capital and trust among vegetable clusters. Data were sourced from key informant interviews, trip reports, and focus group discussions for this case study. In evaluating trust, farmers were asked to reflect on a number of trust measures. Farmers attributed their trust in cluster to knowledge that they had buyers for their produce. Social capital in form of affiliations and networks, open communication, social cohesion and high levels of trust benefited the cluster marketing groups in many ways. External partners assisted in the implementation of clustering activities, helping to overcome problems associated with accessing information, training, credit, supply of farm inputs and new technologies. Social cohesion among the cluster members contributed to implementation of programs and promoted cooperation among members. Open communication through regular meetings provided a positive environment to build trust. One of key elements in building trust was transparency in exchanging market information and complete disclosure of cluster transactions. The most important ingredient was the mutual trust and respect that cluster members shared. Cluster members recognized that to retain their buyers, they had to trust one another to deliver what they had promised. The study found out that social capital indicators such as associations and networks, social cohesiveness, open communication, and trust benefited the vegetable farmers groups in Bukidnon, South Cotabato and Davao City. It examined social capital and trust among vegetable cluster marketing groups for the purpose of encouraging dialogue between researchers, policymakers, government agencies, non-government agencies and smallholder farmers.   

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Juan M. Pulhin
Department of Social Forestry and Forest Governance
College of of Forestry and Natural Resouces
UP Los Baños

Is Recentralization Really Dominant? The Role of Frontline Foresters for Institutional Arrangement in the Philippines. Small-scale Forestry, 13 (2): 183-200, June 2014.

Decentralized forest policy has been moderately successful in delivering resource-use rights to local people. At the same time, it is possible that decentralization leads to recentralization because governments never give their authority over forest resources. Recentralization studies have paid little attention to the potential of local dynamics to lead to institutional arrangements that affect forest outcomes. This paper uses a case study of Community based Forest Management (CBFM) in the Philippines to explore how local realities lead to the development of effective institutions for forest management. In this case study, local informal regulations of forest resource use were created through the process of settling local conflicts among competing CBFM interests, including members and non-members of people’s organizations, and frontline foresters who are working at local level. Frontline foresters played a role as coordinator of institutional arrangements that regulate local forest exploitation within the CBFM implementation process. The behaviour of frontline foresters affected by their own personalities and existing social relations among residents, can deter recentralization in some ways. More attention is needed on the role of frontline foresters and non-members of people’s organization as influential negotiators in state-society relations concerning forests.

Link to the article: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11842-013-9248-0
Impact Factor: 0.922

Michiko Sangalang-Aseron and Rachelle U. Peneyra
Department of Physical Education
College of Human Kinetics
UP Diliman

Preservation of Mag-Indi Ayta Games. Asia Life Sciences, 23 (2): 549-566, July-December 2014. 

Games are a form of cultural expression and act as a reflector of the historical journey of a particular group of people. It is also a vehicle that help pass on traditions and beliefs from the older generation to the younger ones. The Mag-Indi Aytas of Bgy. Camias in Porac, Pampanga found the need to preserve their games through a written manuscript that will serve as a time capsule for their next generations. They believe that through documenting their games, they will be able to safeguard a very important cultural heritage. The authors documented 27 games of the Mag-Indi Aytas which the community divided into four categories: free play with toys, games with competion, socio-economic and guessing games. The community said that they engage in games to relieve stress, lighten their work, pass time, and as a bonding activity with family and friends. Their materials are crafted from plants and trees they see around their homes, and their playing areas consist of plant-field, mountains, forests and rivers. The documentation of their games reawakened their sense of being an Ayta and strengthened their pride as a community. As one of the elder said after the documentation process, “Sa paglipas ng panahon mawala man yan, mawala man yung lahi ng katutubo, mayroon pa ring maiiwan. [As time passes, even if all goes away, even if we lose our way of life, we are already reassured that there will be a piece of us that remains](personal communication, 2013).

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/1238
Impact Factor: 0.18

Jovita S. Dela Cruz and Rowena N. Monte
Department of Human Kinetics
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Los Baños

Self-Efficacy of Selected College-Age Physical Education Students: Inputs for Curricular Developments. Asia Life Sciences, 23 (2): 593-605, July-December 2014. 

Self-efficacy (SE) refers to beliefs in one’s capabilities to successfully perform a particular task. It influences an individual’s choice of activity, the challenges and goals one sets for herself and one’s commitment to them. A person with high SE will more eagerly choose to participate, give more effort and persist longer at a task than an individual with low SE. This study sought to determine the SE levels of selected college students enrolled in a Physical Education (PE) class using the Appraisal Inventory for Exercise (AI-Ex). Results of this study can be used by PE instructors in terms of the specific knowledge and learning experiences they can provide to affect students’ self-efficacy. PE can build exercise habits by: (1) providing information such as the what, how, and why of exercise; (2) ensuring that students are able to understand, accept and retain these information; (3) providing opportunities for translating this knowledge into actual participation; (4) developing student’s skills that leads to confident, independent participation; and (5) mentoring students in making meaning of their physical activity participation. Through PE, students acquire the necessary knowledge in order to build a confident and enjoyable participation in recreational activities and competitive sports.

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/1240
Impact Factor: 0.18

Teresa S. Encarnacion-Tadem
Department of Political Science
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

Moro and Basque Nationalism and the Limitations of “Liberal Democracy”. Journal of Comparative Asian Development, 13 (2): 212-241, 2014. 

This paper seeks to compare and contrast the manner in which the respective political systems under a liberal democratic set-up in Spain and the Philippines attempted to accommodate the needs and concerns of the Basque and Moro separatist movements, respectively during their post-authoritarian periods.  Both the Spanish and Philippine governments attempted to create a political system which is more participative and deliberative through the pursuit of peace negotiations and the creation of a federal structure of government for the Basque region and an autonomous region for Muslim Mindanao as can be found in associative democracies.  Such attempts were also influenced by external factors, e.g., the impact of the U.S. War-on-Terror on Spanish and Philippine peace negotiations with the ETA and the MNLF/MILF respectively.  For the Philippines, the major stumbling blocks to this include the  “illiberal” character of its democracy, Muslim Mindanao being the poorest region in the country and its marginalization by a dominant Catholic majority. This is unlike Spain which has a strong liberal democratic foundation but which is constantly being challenged by the economically rich Basque region with the support of other regions asserting their autonomy from the central government.

Link to the article: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15339114.2014.927748
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Ronald D. Villanueva and Marco Nemesio E. Montaño
Marine Science Institute
College of Science
UP Diliman

Enhancement of Carrageenan Gel Quality in the Commercially Important Tropical Seaweed Eucheuma denticulatum (Rhodophyta), with Postharvest Treatment in Low-nutrient Conditions. Botanica Marina, 57 (3): 217-223, June 2014.

The potential of postharvest culture in low nutrient conditions was evaluated in terms of enhancement of carrageenan gel quality in the tropical seaweed Eucheuma denticulatum (“spinosum” of commerce) and as an alternative to industrial alkali treatment. Postharvest batch culture of seaweeds with either initially low or high nutrient concentrations (both ending with low nutrient concentrations) produced native carrageenans that had significantly higher gel strengths (48 g cm-2 in both treatments) than those treated with continuous culture in high nutrient concentrations (18 g cm-2). The gel strength of native carrageenans from batch-cultured seaweeds was also significantly higher than that of both native and alkali-treated carrageenans from seaweeds that had not undergone postharvest culture (11 and 29 g cm-2, respectively). The mechanism indicated for the enhancement of carrageenan gel quality involves stopping the production of precursor (galactose-6-sulfate) and converting the pre-existing precursor to 3,6-anhydrogalactose units through in vivo enzymatic action. Postharvest batch culture with low nutrient concentrations is considered to be an eco-friendly alternative to industrial alkali treatment in the enhancement of carrageenan gel quality.

Link to the article: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/botm.2014.57.issue-3/bot-2013-0124/bot-2013-0124.xml
Impact Factor: 1

Luis Maria B. Garcia
Institute of Biology
College of Science
UP Diliman

Effects of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and Handling Stress on Spermiation of Silver Perch Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 30 (3): 448–453, June 2014. 

Breeding of male ayungin: Reaching only the size of a finger, ayungin (silver perch Leiopotherapon plumbeus) maybe a tiny yet tasty fish, but it is a staple food of many rural communities near lake bodies in Luzon.  It was fished abundantly decades ago but constant harvesting has led to a reduction in their body size and abundance in recent years.  Keeping captive ayungin for breeding and production of their fry may not be that simple since captive fish usually do not breed, hence the need to stimulate reproduction by some means.  The application of a chemical agent like chorionic gonadotropin produced by human placenta has been found effective in other fishes including ayungin.  One injection of this gonadotropin to sexually ripe male ayungin increased both the amount of sperm and its volume about 18-30 hours after injection.  Injecting fish requires handling which impairs fish reproduction, but human chorionic gonadotropin minimizes handling-related impairment of sperm production.  This study demonstrates an effective means of breeding male ayungin and may also just as well work in females too to produce fry for culture, providing thus a way to reduce harvest of overfished ayungin in Philippine lakes.    

Link to the article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jai.12383/pdf
Impact Factor: 0.903

Nico R. Almarines and Renato L. Lapitan
Institute of Renewal Natural Resources
College of Forestry and Natural Resources
UP Los Baños

Carbon Stock Determination of Selected Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Upper Marikina Watershed, Antipolo City, Rizal Province, Philippines. Asia Life Sciences, 23 (1): 49-63, January-June 2014.

Ecosystems play a vital role in the issue of climate change because these serve as carbon sinks through the process of photosynthesis. In this study, the biomass and carbon stock in the carbon pools of some terrestrial ecosystems in the Upper Marikina Watershed were assessed through a system of efficient, cost-effective methods of field and laboratory measurements; thus generating much needed baseline carbon stock data of the Upper Marikina Watershed in preparation for future studies. The study indicates, that the order of the various land-uses according to biomass density is as follows: residual forest (567.19 Mg/ha) > reforestation site (305.37 Mg/ha) > plantation (156.54 Mg/ha) > agroforestry (75.78 Mg/ha) > grassland (33.71 Mg/ha). The proportion of below ground biomass (BGB) to above ground biomass (AGB) is 22.18% in residual forests, 20.795% in agroforestry, 20.03% in mixed reforestation, 19.49% in plantation, and 13.61% in grasslands. On the average, the BGB is around 19.22% of the total weight AGB. The carbon density in the watershed ranged from 99.33 MgC/ha to almost 290 MgC/ha, in the following order: residual forest (288.196 MgC/ha) > mixed species reforestation (181.45 MgC/ha) > plantation (141.62 MgC/ha) > grassland (110.36 MgC/ha) > agroforestry (99.33MgC/ha). The percent of soil carbon in the total carbon of each ecosystem are 11.44, 24.27, 50.26, 87.78 and 64.67%, respectively. The study highlights the potential of the watershed for carbon sequestration and storage.

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/1073
Impact Factor: 0.18

Cristy S. Acabado* and Wilfredo L. Campos
Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanology*
Division of Biological Sciences
College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences*
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Visayas

Fish Larval Flux in Relation to Time and Tide in Taklong Island National Marine Reserve (Tinmar), Southern Guimaras, Philippines. Galaxea: Journal of Coral Reef Studies, 15S: 208-214, December 2013. 

The number and the kinds of young fish entering the Taklong Island National Marine Reserve, Guimaras were studied and compared between the full moon and new moon (August and September 2007, respectively) and between day and night. Two nets, with very fine meshbags, were each positioned at the near-surface and sub-surface allowing water carrying floating larval fish to flow through, then collected every hour. The direction of the current in the northern channel (Nabinbinan) reverses with change in tides, while the southern channel (Taklong-Tandog Pass) constantly flows outside of the reserve. A total of 16, 387 individual fish were caught and identified under 69 families. Few larvae were collected during the full moon vs. new moon (no moon) because these small fish avoid visual predators when the moon is bright. For both moon phases, a larger number of larval fish enters the reserve at night related to the incoming tide, where food is also carried. The larvae decrease in number during the day, a response similar to the new moon phase where they avoid predators from seeing them to allow high rate of survival. Higher abundance in Nabinbinan may be due to the presence of coral reefs in the area. The results show the importance of the marine reserve as a nursing ground for young fish.

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Dixon T. Gevaña
Department of Social Forestry and Forest Governance
College of Forestry and Natural Resources
UP Los Baños

Assessing Rainfall Contribution to Storm Flow on a Small Forested Catchment in Republic of Korea. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 17 (1): 21-27, June 2014. 

The dynamics of storm flow in forested catchments have received great deal of attention from hydrologists and forest managers, over the last several years. However, little is known with respect to hydrologic processes that occur within catchments during storm events.  The TOPMODEL was therefore applied to simulate storm flow and estimate the rainfall contribution to storm flow generation in a small, forested catchment of Korea. Model parameters were evaluated and optimized using the Monte Carlo simulation technique for nine storm. Key findings show that the rainfall contribution to storm flow was 23.1 %. This largely include the several driving factors: rainfall amounts, durations, patterns, and soil moisture conditions during each event prior to rain on-set. The rainfall-induced quick flow was approximately 58.3 % of the total storm flow, while 41.7 % was contributed by groundwater.  Such findings are helpful to better understand the impacts of rainfall intensity on flooding and landslide.

Link to the article: http://www.journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/JESAM/article/view/1216
Impact Factor: 0.103

Rosario R. Rubite
Department of Biology
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Manila

Begonia chingipengii (sect. Baryandra, Begoniaceae), A New Species from Luzon Island, Philippines. Phytotaxa, 164 (3): 175-182, 8 April 2014. 

We describe Begonia chingipengii a new species of Begonia sect. Baryandra from Gabaldon, Nueva Ec
ija,  endemic to the Philippines. This is the latest addition to
the newly delimited Begonia section Baryandra. It resembles Begonia trichochila but is distinguished by the variegated leaves with light green veins and midrib contrasting with the dark green adaxial surface and maroon abaxial surface, and its oblique leaf is elongated with an acuminate apex. The robust variegated leaves, large flowers and extensive inflorescence make it very attractive

Link to the article: http://www.mapress.com/phytotaxa/content/2014/f/p00164p182f.pdf
Impact Factor: 1.376

Rosario R. Rubite
Department of Biology
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Manila

In situ Glacial Survival at the Northern Limit of Tropical Insular Asia by a Lowland Herb Begonia fenicis (Begoniaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 174 (3): 305-325, March 2014.

To test the post-glacial migration hypothesis for Begonia fenicis at the northern limit of tropical insular Asia, namely, the northern Philippines, southern Taiwan and the southern Ryukyus of Japan, we used internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences. Analyses of phylogeographical structure suggested long-term survival of island