IPA Awardees for June 2014

Miguel Paolo P. Reyes
Third World Studies Center
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

El Filibusterismo and Jose Rizal as “Science Fictionist”. Humanities Diliman, 10 (2): 29-55, July-December 2013.

No, Rizal isn’t the Pinoy H.G. Wells or Jules Verne. But in El Filibusterismo, he did dream up many devices that were scientifically plausible but likely hadn’t been invented yet, from modern sunglasses to an advanced version of the “talking head” illusion. Rizal the man of science was definitely on display in the Fili. But the article El Filibusterismo and Jose Rizal as ‘Science Fictionist,” published in the July-January 2013 issue of Humanities Diliman, shows that unlike many Western science fictionists from the time that genre was born, Jose Rizal didn’t agree with the “science conquers all” theme. In the Fili, he showed that thinking in a scientific manner was not widespread among his countrymen. Thus, any force fighting against their oppressive colonizers could not fight under the banner of science alone—it would have to take into account those who believe that Bernardo Carpio is the savior of the Tagalogs or were devout Catholics above all else, among others. Although he very well could have, Rizal didn’t turn the Fili into a fantasy about the scientifically superior beating the scientifically inferior (remember, even with his high-tech weapons, the main character, the vengeful Simoun, never succeeded in launching a revolution against the Spaniards). Instead, Rizal can be said to have written a novel that shows how nationalists with over-the-cutting-edge inventions should learn to work with nationalists who are less appreciative of the sciences in order to defeat an enemy that treats all of them as inferior.

Link to the article: http://journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/humanitiesdiliman/article/view/4168/3774
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Francis R. Capule
Department of Pharmacy
College of Pharmacy
UP Manila

Acute Oral Toxicity of the Crude Aqueous Extract of the Whole Plant of Euphorbia hirta L. (Family Euphorbiaceae). Acta Medica Philippina, 47 (4): 23-29, October-December 2013.

Euphorbia hirta or tawa-tawa is a small annual herb common to tropical countries like the Philippines. The decoction of the whole plant is used as a folkloric herbal treatment for dengue in the country. The plant is believed to have platelet increasing property. However, health authorities warn the general public in using this plant for dengue treatment because of insufficient efficacy and safety data available to support its clinical use. This study was conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50), toxidromes and reversibility of toxic effects following the acute oral administration of the aqueous extract in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of the Up-and-Down Procedure showed that the LD50 of the aqueous extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. While the LD50 of the aqueous extract is greater than 5000 mg/kg there is a need to pay attention to the toxidromes showing evidence of dose-dependent CNS depression. A reversible loss of screen grip was observed at 2000 mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg. A reversible analgesia was also seen at 5000 mg/kg. The test animals did not experience significant body weight alterations. Gross necropsy revealed a hematoma on top of the skull and in the large intestine and a small, round protrusion in the stomach of test animals.Histopathological examination showed multifocal submucosal hemorrhages and foci of perivascular hemorrhages and neuronal necrosis indicating an acute hemorrhagic enteritis and cerebral hemorrhage, respectively. These findings are crucial in the light of the anecdotal use of E. hirta for the treatment of dengue.

Link to the article: http://www.actamedicaphilippina.com.ph/
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Jonathan P. Sale
SOLAIR
UP Diliman

Changes in Philippine Labour Relations Policy: Convergence or Divergence of Productivity, Flexibility and Welfare?. Economic and Labour Relations Review, 25 (2): 327-352, June 2014. 

In the first decade of the present century, a succession of changes to Philippine labour law and jurisprudence sought to contribute to productivity and social welfare by introducing greater industrial relations flexibility, based on collective bargaining and voluntary dispute settlement. The article examines whether these changes actually resulted in any shift from a rights-based system for resolving industrial disputation to a system based on workplace-level interest-based negotiation, and whether they were accompanied either by higher labour productivity or by improved social welfare. The analysis draws on a conceptual framework that identifies coherent national labour regulation systems as being based on a convergence of three institutional approaches – to the operation of labour markets, of labour relations and of social security. Broadly, such labour regulation systems can be classified as either civil law or common law based. The Philippine labour regulation system is shown to have a hybrid basis, whose origins are briefly traced by identifying the legacy of the colonial and post-colonial phases, the martial law era and the restoration of democracy in 1986. Whereas Australia, another hybrid system, appears to have achieved some coherence in changes to the regulation of industrial relations, labour markets and social welfare, in the Philippines, such changes have not converged. In the 1990s, efforts to mitigate the traditional legalistic and adversarial character of industrial relations through liberalisation of restrictions on the right to organise were cross-cut by the effects of the growing labour market flexibility that resulted from integration into the global economy. Legal changes between 1999 and 2011 have not fostered voluntary self-organisation of distributive bargaining at enterprise level. Union membership, collective bargaining coverage and numbers of workers involved in notified or actual industrial action have declined, while reliance on compulsory arbitration and monetary compensation claims has remained high. Labour productivity has not improved. Within the context of globalisation, the labour market is increasingly characterised by numerical flexibility and a prevalence of small enterprises. High unemployment levels and a large informal sector indicate divergence between the systems for regulating labour and welfare.

Link to the article: http://elr.sagepub.com/content/25/2/327.short
Impact Factor: 0.13

Alice Prieto-Carolino and Rodelio F. Subade
Division of Social Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Visayas

Reducing and Managing Disaster Risk through Coastal Resource Management: A Philippine Case. Asian Fisheries Science, 26: 198-211, 2013.

The national and local governments in the Philippines have initiated disaster risk reduction and management activities to mitigate the impact of disasters. The coastal communities of Guimbal and Tigbauan in Iloilo,  have passed CRM and DRRM- related policies and have  initiated  activities to address the interrelated issues of disaster risks and coastal resources mismanagement.  This paper posits that the condition of the coastal and marine resources is a big factor in promoting community resilience to hazards.  To further strengthen local government units’ and communities’ capacities to respond to disaster risks it is recommended that efforts at coastal resource management and disaster risk reduction and management should be complementary particularly in strengthening institutional capacity to manage both disasters and coastal zones.

Link to the article: http://www.asianfisheriessociety.org/
Impact Factor: Not yet available

April May L. Arcamo-Gentica and Jezie A. Acorda
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences

College of Veterinary Medicine
UP Los Baños

Ultrasound Features and Echo Mean Values of the Heart, Liver and Stomach in the Philippine Tarsier, Carlito syrichta (Linnaeus, 1758) Shekelle and Groves, 2010 (Mammalia: Primates: Tarsiidae). Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 51 (1): 15-22, January-June 2014. 

The ultrasound appearance and brightness of the heart, liver and stomach of apparently healthy Philippine tarsiers (Carlito syrichta) were determined according to sex (four males and four females), age (four adult and four young) and source (five captive-bred and three wild) using an ultrasound machine. The heart was seen as a black, rapidly contracting oval structure. Adults had significantly larger heart than young tarsiers. Wild tarsiers had brighter heart chamber than captive-bred animals. The liver appeared gray with some dark areas. The gall bladder, hepatic vein and portal vein were visible. The stomach had dark lumen with bright wall. Adults had bigger stomach than young ones. Results of the study could be used as baseline data for the ultrasound appearance of the heart, liver, and stomach for diagnosis of diseases and disorders of these organs in Philippine tarsiers.

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/PJVM/article/view/1160
Impact Factor:0.06

Jezie A. Acorda
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences

College of Veterinary Medicine
UP Los Baños

Ultrasonographic Features of the Heart in Philippine Brown Deer, Rusa marianna (Desmarest, 1822) (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae). Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 51 (1): 23-29, January-June 2014. 

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/PJVM/article/view/1161
Impact Factor: 0.06

Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico* and Maria Lourdes P. Dalida
Environmental Engineering*

Chemical Engineering
College of Engineering
UP Diliman

Improved Removal of Lead(ii) from Water using a Polymer-Based Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 1 (11): 3789-3796, March 2013.

Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) was blended with graphene oxide (GO) to form a PVK–GO polymer nanocomposite capable of adsorbing heavy metal from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of the PVK-GO nanocomposite adsorbent was evaluated at different PVK:GO concentration ratios, pH of aqueous solution, and contact time between lead (II) and the nanocomposite. The results show that toxic lead (II) can be removed from aqueous solution using PVK-GO nanoadsorbent. The highest PVK:GO  adsorption capacity (887.98 mg/g) was obtained using a 10:90 wt % ratio of PVK:GO at pH 7±0.50 with 90 min contact time. This high removal efficiency only goes to show the applicability and effectiveness of using PVK – GO to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

 

Link to the article: http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/ta/c3ta01616a/unauth#!divAbstract
Impact Factor: 5.97

Pedro A. Alviola IV
School of Management
UP Mindanao

The Effect of Fast-Food Restaurants on Childhood Obesity: A School Level Analysis. Economics & Human Biology, 12: 110–119, January 2014. 

Childhood obesity has been considered as a public health epidemic. Studies have shown that child obesity affects not just the children’s health status but has long term effects on their academic achievement and productivity. Unfortunately, the immediate complications of childhood obesity include developing diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, respiratory problems, and arthritis. On the other hand, fast-foods have been identified as one of the major drivers of child obesity because of factors such as substitution of home prepared meals to ready to cook meals, increased labor force participation of women and massive advertising campaign of major fast-food restaurants to children. Fast foods are calorie dense, high in fats and sodium and are sold in relatively large portion sizes. Thus, considering the immense public policy implications of childhood obesity, there is a need to examine whether availability of fast-food significantly affects child weight outcomes. In this research, we look at the impact of the number of fast food restaurants on school level BMI in Arkansas. We utilize the instrumental variable approach and identify the model with the distance to the nearest highway variable. Our results suggest that adding one fast-food restaurant within one mile from a school increases school obesity rates by 1.23 percentage points. Therefore, zonal policies such as increasing the distance of fast-food restaurants from schools have the potential of reducing obesity rates through increasing transport costs. Also sustained school educational messages that reinforce healthy eating among school children must be supported.

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X13000403
Impact Factor: 1.797

Marianne Leila Santiago-Flores, Joseph S. Masangkay, Ceferino P. Maala and Johanna Benissa C. Abuton
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences
College of Veterinary Medicine
UP Los Baños

Guard Hair Morphology of the Greater Musky Fruit Bat (Ptenochirus jagori Peters, 1861) (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) and the Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat (Cynopterus brachyotis Muller, 1838) (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 51 (1): 8-14, January-June 2014.

The hairs the greater musky fruit bat (Ptenochirus jagori) and lesser dog-faced fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis) were examined and described to differentiate the two. The hair samples were manually plucked from five different body regions of five male and five female adult animals of each species and examined grossly, under light microscopy for the medulla and scanning electron microscopy for the cuticle. Majority of the hairs exhibited simple ovate discontinuous medulla, except for the female of both species’ foreheads having an additional elongate medullary cells mixed in, while the dorsum of the female C. brachyotis had simple flattened discontinuous medulla. Only coronal cuticular pattern was seen with simple or serrate dorsal scales that were oriented transversely or obliquely. The males of both species can be differentiated by the cuticular characteristics of the hair from the forehead and hindlimb, while the females of both species had dissimilar cuticular features in their forelimbs. Guard hair morphology can be used to distinguish the frugivores under study from each other, with enough variability for sexual dimorphism.

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/PJVM/article/view/1159
Impact Factor: 0.06

Betchaida D. Payot
National Institute of Geological Sciences
College of Science
UP Diliman

Podiform Chromitite Formation in a Low-Cr/high-Al System: An Example from Southwestern Indian Ridge (SWIR). Mineralogy and Petrology, 108 (4): 533-549, August 2014.

The R/V Knorr Cruise 162 and the R/V Yokosuka YK98-07 recently collected peridotite samples from the easternmost section of the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). Peridotites (e.g. lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites) are rocks which are representative of the uppermost mantle. Closely associated with lherzolites, the SWIR dunitescontain podiformchromitite, a type of rock formed from the concentration of the mineral – chromite. The size of the SWIR chromitite pods varies from a few mm to 2 cm in width. Geochemical analyses of the chromites in the SWIR podiformchromitites show that they have very low Cr# (=0.22–0.23) and low TiO2 (<0.17 wt%). Moreover, the lherzolites which possibly represent the wallrock hosting the dunites with podiformchromitites also show low spinel Cr# (=0.16) and low Cr# in the clinopyroxenes (=0.09–0.10) and orthopyroxenes (=0.07– 0.09). Podiformchromitites are believed to have formed from the interaction of host mantle peridotites and an invading exotic melt. The small size of the SWIR podiformchromitites is indicative of the low Cr/Al available in the wallrock-melt system. The discovery of podiformchromitites in the SWIR implies that the formation of podiformchromitite at current mid-oceanic ridges, regardless of its spreading rate, is highly possible><0.17 wt%) Moreover, the lherzolites which possibly represent the wallrock hosting the dunites with podiformchromitites also show low spinel Cr# (=0.16) and low Cr# in the clinopyroxenes (=0.09–0.10) and orthopyroxenes (=0.07– 0.09). Podiformchromitites are believed to have formed from the interaction of host mantle peridotites and an invading exotic melt. The small size of the SWIR podiformchromitites is indicative of the low Cr/Al available in the wallrock-melt system. The discovery of podiformchromitites in the SWIR implies that the formation of podiformchromitite at current mid-oceanic ridges, regardless of its spreading rate, is highly possible.

Link to the article: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00710-013-0317-z#page-1
Impact Factor: (2013/2014) 1.598

Ronilo Jose D. Flores, Bernadette C. Mendoza and Maria Teresa M. Perez*
Institute of Biological Sciences
BIOTECH*
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Los Baños

The Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Other Verotoxin-Producing E. coli in Raw, Ground Beef Samples from Wet Markets in Laguna, Philippines. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 96 (2): 26-35, June 2013.

Forty raw, ground beef samples were collected from wet markets in 15 towns of Laguna, Philippines. The samples were enriched and plated out on Cefixime-Tellurite Sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC) agar  for the detection and isolation of presumptive E. coli O157:H7 strains. Twenty-six (out of 400 presumptive) isolates which exhibited the typical E. coli O157:H7 reaction in various biochemical tests were then subjected to O157 antigen detection using an O157 Latex Agglutination kit. None of the isolates possessed the O157 antigen, thus, giving a 0% sample prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in the raw ground beef tested. However, the slt II gene responsible for the production of verotoxin 2 (or Shiga-like toxin II ) was detected in two out of 26 presumptive isolates. This yielded a sample prevalence of 5% (or 2 samples out of 40) for non-O157 but slt II gene-containing E. coli.

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/PAS/article/view/969
Impact Factor: 0.315

Maria Dalisay Giron-Maligalig
Institute of Biological Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Los Baños

Predominant Amines and Bufodienolides from the Skin Secretions of Bufo biporcatus philippinicus Inger. Asia Life Sciences, 23 (1): 343-350, January-June 2014.

The secretions of the poison gland of the Philippine toad, Bufo biporcatus philippinicus Inger were examined and analyzed chemically. The poison is light brown to cream in color and the consistency is thin and watery. Chemical analysis using several chromatography assays showed that the major components of the secretions are amines and bufodienolides. 

Link to the article: http://www.journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/1098
Impact Factor: 0.18

Niceto S. Poblador
School of Economics
UP Diliman

Finding a Common Framework for the Analysis of Social and Institutional Change: A Retrospective and An Exploration. Philippine Science Letters, 7 (1): 146-154, January-June 2014. 

Link to the article: http://philsciletters.org/2014/PSL%202014-vol07-no01-p146-154%20Poblador.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Jorge V. Tigno
Department of Political Science
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

At the Mercy of the market?: State-enabled, Market-oriented Labor Migration and Women Migrants from the Philippines. Philippine Political Science Journal, 35 (1): 19-36, May 2014.

The paper points out an essential dilemma between the Philippine state’s market-driven migration policy logic and its logic of protection and care for its deployed migrant workers. The resolution of this dilemma lies in a state-market codetermination relationship that leaves migrants vulnerable to abuse and exploitation.

Link to the article: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01154451.2014.914999
Impact Factor: 0.2

Rogelio Alicor L. Panao
Department of Political Science
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

Beyond Roll Call: Executive-Legislative Relations and Lawmaking in the Philippine House of Representatives. Philippine Political Science Journal, 35 (1): 59-77, May 2014. 

Who really makes laws in the Philippines? Common sense, of course, tells us that lawmaking is primarily the business of Congress. After all, the Philippines is a presidential democracy operating under the principle of separation of powers. Or so we thought. A closer examination of laws deliberated and passed at the House of Representatives, however, suggests that laws certified urgent by the president are about 9 times more likely to become law than any other bill filed at the lower house. How are Philippine presidents able to persuade Congress to adopt their legislative agenda? One explanation is the wide latitude chief executives exercise over the control and release of congressional earmarks (pork barrel). Be that as it may, the president holds no monopoly of the policy process. Presidents are dominant policy actors, as findings of this research suggest, but the president’s power to influence legislative agenda can also be weakened by political realities such as term limits, unpopularity, political cycles, as well as by local political dynamics. The influence also dwindles over time. What does this mean for policy agents? The findings suggest that lobbyists, policy activists, and those involved in legislative work are better off consciously observing timing as part of their strategy. A policy entrepreneur who sells the administration’s policy cart, for instance, must make sure the bills do not stay under deliberation for more than two years. It is also wise to be mindful of the political climate and choose legislative sponsors discerningly.

Link to the article: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01154451.2014.903554#.VNEfcNLF_Pg
Impact Factor: 0.2

Jasper John A. Obico and Elena M. Ragragio
Department of Biology
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Manila

A Survey of Plants Used as Repellents Against Hematophagus Insects by the Ayta People of Porac, Pampanga Province, Philippines. Philippine Science Letters, 7 (1): 146-154, January-June 2014.

Most popular plants with insect-repellent activity are non-native to the Philippines and can pose an ecological threat when propagated for its utility. Indigenous knowledge provides a wealth of information on native plants with such potential application. To document the insect-repellent plants used by the Ayta people from Porac, Pampanga, Philippines, 121 informants from five villages aged between 20-60 years old were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the use- value (UV) and informant consensus factor (FIC). The survey resulted in a list of 54 species of plants classified into 49 genera and 26 families. The legume family (Fabaceae) contains the most number of species with insect-repellent activity. The most important plants used as insect repellent based on their UVs are mostly exotic plants and include 7 species: (1) ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) (2) kakawate (Gliricidia sepium), (3) Eucalyptus sp., (4) Melina (Gmelina arborea), (5) sambong (Blumea balsamifera) (6) neem tree (Azadirachta indica), and (7) payang-payang (Phyllodium pulchellum).The FIC value (0.78) indicates that the Ayta agree in their selection of plants. Most of the plant parts used are the leaves and stems, which are dried and then burned. The smoke is said to drive away the insects. The use of Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, Eucalyptus sp., and Azadirachta indica is supported by published works. A new record on insect-repellent activity is found in the exotic Gmelina arborea and two native plants, Blumea balsamifera and Phyllodium pulchellum. The present study may provide a baseline for phytochemical screening for insect-repellent compounds. It also serves as an important ethnobotanical documentation of the Ayta community whose culture is slowly being eroded by acculturation.

Link to the article: http://philsciletters.org/2014/PSL%202014-vol07-no01-p179-186%20Obico.htm
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Erniel B. Barrios
School of Statistics
UP Diliman

Estimation Procedure for a Multiple Time Series Model. Communications in Statistics – Simulation and Computation, 43 (10): 2415-2431, June 2014.

Credit risk can be managed through the implementation of policies like credit limit, minimum payment policy, among others. Borrowers however, may still manifest their own peculiar behavior as influenced by individual determinants like income and other socio-economic profile. Banks want to evaluate the dynamics between their policies and profile of their customers to be able to predict consumer behavior and subsequently implement strategic plans to mitigate the potential credit risk.  We provide a tool to be able of study such dynamics.

Link to the article: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03610918.2012.752838#.VNKMvNLF_Pg
Impact Factor: 0.295

Rachelle U. Peneyra and Felipe P. Jocano Jr.*
Department of Sport Studies
Department of Anthropology*
College of Human Kinetics
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy*
UP Diliman

Meaning of Sport among Filipino Athletes. Asia Life Sciences, 22 (1): 191-202, January-June 2014.

Why should Filipinos participate in sport? Research was conducted among our country’s national team to find out what their views were about the meaning and function of sport; and our country’s best athletes reveal that the number one thing that you can gain from sport is discipline. Nineteen athletes who’ve won gold and silver medals in the SEA games and Asian games said that sport taught them discipline and how to manage time because this was the only way they could train properly to be able to win.  This also meant that they learned to be fit and stay away from vices, like drinking, smoking and doing drugs to take care of their bodies. If you train hard enough to win and become a member of the national team, you can also get scholarships and opportunities to travel. Sport then can better the life of Filipinos who can become disciplined, healthy, and educated citizens.

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/795
Impact Factor: 0.18

Maria Lourdes T. Munarriz, Jose Francisco V. Aniag, Maria Katrina L. Apaya, Aquilino V. Santiago III  and Christian Kelvin V. Tagnipez
School of Urban and Regional Planning
UP Diliman

Coastal Informal Settlement and Their Access to Electricity: The Case of Sitio Tondo, Barangay Digman, Bacoor City, Cavite Province, Philippines. Asia Life Sciences, 23 (2): 743-755, July-December 2014.

The growth of informal settlements has continually increased and the majority of the population remains in a site that is considered to be highly at risk. Informal settlers act on their lack of access to electricity by exploiting their territorial and political relationships and a complex system develops, which includes actors, i. e., land owners, informal settlers, local government officials and basic services providers, and the contested property as the setting. This exploratory study investigated the general living conditions of informal settlers in the coastal area of Bacoor City, Cavite; how long they have been residing; how they gain access to electricity, as a basic utility, and are they able to sustain accessibility. The study is limited to Sitio Tondo of Barangay Digman, Bacoor City and the findings may be significant in giving light to the living conditions of settlers and how they survive a relatively dangerous living condition.

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/1252
Impact Factor: 0.18

Glenn L. Sia Su
Department of Biology
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Manila

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Accumulation in Shellfishes Collected from Various Habitats in Murcielagos Bay, Philippines During Harmful Algal Blooms Occurrence. Advances in Enviromantal Biology, 8 (7): 2262-2265, May 2014.

This study aims to determine whether the habitat of bivalves plays an influence in the occurrence of tropical shellfish toxicity during toxic red tide bloom occurrences in Murcielagos Bay, Misamis Occidental, Philippines. Various shellfish species were collected during the occurrence of red tide blooms. The type of habitat and the shellfish toxicities were investigated.  Likewise, the phytoplankton profile in the seawater column was assessed.  Results of our study revealed that the occurrence of shellfish toxicities was habitat specific in spite of the fact that the causative organism Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum  was present in low concentrations in the sampling sites.  Shellfish collected from sea grass, coralline area, and seafloor habitats were notable susceptible against the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin contamination compared to those samples obtained from soil substrate.  Continuous monitoring of areas that are affected with shellfish toxicity must be conducted so as to safeguard the general public’s welfare dependent on these resources.

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Nelson R. Villarante
Department of Physical Sciences and Mathematics
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Manila

Substituent Effects on the Photorearrangements of Unsymmmtrically Substituted Diazinobarrelenes. RSC Advances, 4: 1165-1178, January 2013.

For the past several years, our laboratory has been investigating on the photochemical properties of barrelene analogues,  such as pyrazino-, quinoxalino- and benzoquinoxalinobarrelenes. In this paper, we reported our results on the photochemical rearrangements of diazinobarrelens 1-6.  The results showed that the bridging specificity of these systems is governed by the electronic effect  of the different functional groups.  Factors such as steric and electronic effects and minimization of triplet energy at  the reaction surface reasonably account  for the observed chemo-and regioselectivity. 

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: 2.56

Christian Wisdom M. Valleser
Department of Sports Science
College of Human Kinetics
UP Diliman

In- and Off-Season Academic Performance of College Student-Athletes in Team Sports. Asia Life Sciences, 23 (2): 625-634, July-December 2014.

In-Season and Off-Season Academic Performance

Varsity sports is a part of many colleges and universities in the Philippines. At the core of any varsity program are student-athletes who have to perform well in sports and study to satisfy their academic responsibilities. This tends to be a difficult challenge experienced by many college student-athletes. This study examined the academic performance of 221 male and female student-athletes from three team sports from the University of the Philippines Diliman. These teams were selected because they had long competitive seasons and seasonal differences in academic performance would have been more observable. Overall, there was no significant difference in the in-season and off-season academic performance suggesting that student-athletes could academically adapt to regular transitions between the in-season and off-season. Furthermore, differences in academic load were similar to the trend in GWA difference. This, however, does not account for credits attempted during the summer term. It is likely that student-athletes take reduced academic loads in the regular semesters and make up for their academic credits during the summer term. It is thus assumed that the coaches and athletes recognize academic achievement as a primary concern. Furthermore, the admission requirement for student-athletes is practically the same as entering freshmen such as the UP College Admission Test (UPCAT). Prospects that did not take the UPCAT, transferees from other schools, or have low high school grades are rarely admitted into the varsity program. This strict selection process limits the talent pool a team may have but it also increases the probability of academic survival

Link to the article: http://www.journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/1243
Impact Factor: 0.18

Joan Reotita, Fernando Siringan and Rhodora V. Azanza
Marine Science Institute
College of Science
UP Diliman

Paleoenvironment Changes in Juag Lagoon, Philippines Based on Sedimentology, Bulk Geochemistry and Stable Isotopes and their Implication to Nutrification. Quaternary International, 333: 110–121, May 2014.

This publication is a product of the DOST-funded project “Eutrophication, Climate and Algal blooms in the Tropics under the Ecology and Oceanography of HABs in the Philippines (PhilHABs) Program”.  This study shows that natural changes in the environment could lead to increase in nutrient concentrations (nutrification) through time.  As such, anthropogenic influences could pose negative feedbacks or worse exacerbate the negative impacts to the environment.   The paleoenvironment reconstruction was based on sediment cores with age control correlated with several proxies, such as sedimentology, XRF-derived geochemistry and stable isotopes.  These proxies were used to ascertain the source, nature and process by which these sediments were accumulated in the lagoon in the past.  Based on these correlations, 3 units were identified which also typifies the stages of evolution of Juag Lagoon.  It has been noted that proxies for sediment input can be correlated with the onset of agriculture and population boom.  Similarly, pronounced elevation in the nutrients of the sediments can also be linked with the increase in the fertilizer use.   This paleoenvironment reconstruction work can aid us in understanding the processes that shaped our present environments.  

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618214000445
Impact Factor: 2.15

Crimson C. Tayco, Francis A. Tablizo and Arturo O. Lluisma
Marine Science Institute
College of Science
UP Diliman

Characterization of a κ-Carrageenase-producing Marine Bacterium, Isolate ALAB-001. Philippine Journal of Science, 142 (1): 45-54, June 2013.

Polysaccharides  from  marine  rhodophytes,  particularly carrageenan  and  agar,  are  major  raw  materials  for a  number  of  industries  worldwide. Although carrageenan is principally used in the industry as gelling, emulsifying, stabilizing, and texturing agent, studies have revealed other potential applications, particularly, in health and biomedicine. These studies indicate that carrageenan-derivatives, i.e., oligo-carrageenans obtained via degradation of carrageenan, possess significant potential for biomedical and physiological applications. Carrageenases are glycoside hydrolases that specifically degrade carrageenan. To date, only a few of these enzymes have been characterized, and identifying additional sources is important considering the role of carrageenases in production of carrageenan derivatives. In this paper, we report the characterization of a marine bacterial strain that produces κ-carrageenase.

Link to the article: http://philjournalsci.dost.gov.ph/vol142no1/pdf/Characterization%20of%20Carrageenase.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Iris Diana C. Uy and Gisela P. Concepcion
Philippine Genome Center
UP System

Possible Loss of the Chloroplast Genome in the Parasitic Flowering Plant Rafflesia lagascae (Rafflesiaceae). Molecular Biology and Evolution, 31 (4): 793-803, April 2014.

Plants thrive today as an evolutionarily successful group because of their ability to undertake photosynthesis. This conversion of solar energy to a bioavailable form transpires in the chloroplast, which, like the mitochondrion, keeps its own small genome. Even in non-photosynthesizing parasitic plants, the chloroplast genome remains. No plant has ever been found devoid of a chloroplast genome. This, however, is now being challenged by findings from Rafflesia, a Southeast Asian plant genus comprised of species that produce impressively gigantic flowers and are completely parasitic. In this study, the total genome of Rafflesia lagascae–a plant species endemic to Luzon, Philippines–was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology. From the HTS data, the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was successfully reconstructed. However, the same could not be achieved for the chloroplast genome, despite multiple complementing techniques. At best, only nonfunctional fragments of plastid genes could be identified. This is unexpected, given that the chloroplast genome should be easier to reconstruct than the mtDNA–the chloroplast is present even in non-photosynthetic parts of heterotrophic plants, and its genome is typically smaller than the mtDNA. The absence of substantial evidence that the chloroplast genome exists in this species suggests that Rafflesia may be the first plant group to possess a cryptic plastid genome, if not none at all. These findings may change what we consider to be the defining characteristics of plants. These may also spark debate and research exploring the importance of plastid genomes, and thus give us invaluable insights into genome evolution in eukaryotes.

Link to the article: http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/4/793.short
Impact Factor: 10.353

Gina R. Gatarin
Department of Sociology
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

Masculine Bodies in the Biocapitalist Era Compromising Human Rights of Commercial Kidney Donors in the Philippines. Gender Technology and Development, 18 (1): 1 107-129, March 2014.

Commercialization of human kidneys is usually not viewed from a gendered and human rights perspective. This research contributes to the discussion of human rights of male breadwinners from poor communities who are forced by circumstances to sell their organs in exchange of instant cash. It reveals the spectrum of actors and layers of corruption involved in making the bodies of poor people as “organs’ bank” for those who can afford to pay in a time when medicine continuously creates innovations to prolong people’s lives.   This is in connection with the operations of laws and policies which open the healthcare system of countries such as in the Philippines to the allure of huge economic gains from transplant tourism. Through interviews with those who sold their kidneys from Baseco in Tondo, Manila; members of non-government organizations (NGOs) operating to uplift the lives of people from Baseco and doing advocacy works against organ trafficking and; with a representative from the Philippine Society of Nephrology (PSN),  the research exposes how the human rights of these kidney providers are seriously compromised by the inconsistent and inadequate policies governing organ donation and transplantation in the country. As a way forward, this study suggests the sharing of responsibility to promote public health as well as the active involvement of the actors—from the medical institutions, government agencies, civil society groups and ordinary people—in advocacy and ensuring that the public will be more informed about the multiple ways to donate organs and halt this illegal black market. 

Link to the article: http://gtd.sagepub.com/content/18/1/107.short
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Emmanuel Liberato V. Papa and Jeffrey C. Pagaduan
Sport Science Department
College of Human Kinetics
UP Diliman

Resisted Jumps in Complex Training: Its Effects on Countermovement Jump Performance. Asia Life Sciences, 23 (2): 711-718, July-December 2014.

Complex Training has been studied and utilized for a long time within the strength and conditioning, and rehabilitation circles. It is a method of training which pairs up a heavy load exercise followed by a biomechanically similar plyometric workout. This method of training is said to improve muscular power output, which makes the athlete move in a more explosive manner. This paper explored the immediate or acute effects of pairing up a resisted plyometric jump with a heavy dumbbell squat. The subjects were female dragon boat athletes. Dumbbell goblet squat has been used for quite some time now as  a substitute for the traditional back squat. This type of exercise is generally considered a front squat variation. Research has stated that the front squat is relatively safer for the knees, as it reduces compression, compared to a back squat. The goblet squat is also said to provide better cues for the athlete, thus executing a better squat. It minimizes errors and makes it easier to correct. On the other hand, the resistance bands used for this paper is a relatively new product, which is a more handy equipment than its predecessors. It is worn at the waist, with two rubberized tubes connecting it to Velcro straps placed under the heel. The subjects performed a set each of goblet squat paired with bodyweight hands-on-waist jumps and resisted jumps. Despite the individual increase in vertical jump for resisted and non-resisted jumps, there was no significant improvements for the protocol as a whole.

Link to the article: http://www.journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/1249
Impact Factor: 0.18

Carlos F. Baldo III and Cristine Villagonzalo
National Institute of Physics
College of Science
UP Diliman

Spin–orbit Coupled Transport in a Curved Quantum Wire. Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 63, 93–98, September 2014.

The magnetic response of a bulk sample is inherent on its magnetic/semi-magnetic nature. Due to nearest-neighbour interactions, magnetic excitations occur. These are due to the fluctuations of the collective magnetic behaviour. Although nearest-neighbour interactions are dominant and are more often studied, the coupling between next-nearest neighbour spins are equally significant particularly at low temperatures. To date, the calculation of the magnetic excitations in one dimension has been exactly solved. As for a system in three dimensions, dispersion curves were obtained numerically using known algorithms. In this paper, we analytically calculated the spin wave energies of a ferromagnetic body-centred cubic (bcc) crystal at low temperatures (close to its ground state). Using the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin model in a uniform external magnetic field, both the nearest-neighbour (NN) and next-nearest-neighbour (NNN) exchange interactions are considered simultaneously. 

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1386947714001714
Impact Factor: 1.522

Sir Anril P. Tiatco
Department of Speech Communication and Theatre Arts
College of Arts and Letters
UP Diliman

Theatre, Entrapment and Globalization in Welcome to IntelStar. Humanities Diliman, 11 (1): 57-84, January-June 2014.

Set in a call center training room with the trainer as the central character, the play is a satire about the use of global English and how it precipitates the effacement of local identity, hence performing as a “trap”that serves the material imperative of multinational corporations to maximize profitability of the business processing sector. While it is easy to understand the trope of “entrapment” in the context of globalization, here I recollect my watching of the play, that I, myself was seduced by the play’s message—shedding light to the reversal in positions where the theater experience itself is a kind of trap, consequently undoing my negative attitude towards globalization. I reflexively situate my position by problematizing the anti-globalization rhetoric to talk about the indeterminacy of “reality” and “illusion” in a theater experience. 

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Oscar T. Serquiña Jr.
Department of Speech Communication and Theatre Arts
College of Arts and Letters
UP Diliman

Across the City, Toward the Nation: Philippine Poetry, Metropolitan Trains, and the Tulaan sa Tren Project. Humanities Diliman, 11 (1): 30-56, January-June 2014.

This essay analyzes a state-sponsored project called Tulaan sa Tren, which was launched by the National Book Development Board and the Light Railway Transit in 2008 and 2010. It revaluates this project’s intents and purposes, by looking into the metropolitan train as a major component of modern life in the city; the government’s motive in promoting the production and circulation of Philippine literature; and finally, the poems published in Tulaan sa Tren’s two anthologies, namely Train of Thought: Poems from Tulaan sa Tren and Off the Beaten Track: Poems from Tulaan sa Tren 2. This paper suggests that this project may be seen as an institutional and statist intervention to promote nation building, identity making, and city mapping, as well as to educate a portion of the Philippine populace through literary and art forms that exemplify the socio-political concerns, problems, and complexities of living in an urban milieu such as Metropolitan Manila.   

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Richard N. Mualil, Samuel S. Mamauag, Jeffrey T. Cababaro, Hazel O. Arceo and Porfirio M. Aliño
Marine Science Institute
College of Science
UP Diliman

Catch Trends in Philippine Small-Scale Fisheries Over the Last Five Decades: The Fishers׳ Perspectives. Marine Policy, 47: 110–117, July 2014.

The Philippines is an archipelagic country where fishing is an important way of life as well as a major and sometimes the only source of livelihood for many coastal villagers. Thus, fishery deterioration could seriously jeopardize food security and overall well-being of the millions of poor and highly resource-dependent communities in the country. Our study showed the fishery has declined to less than half of the levels of few decades ago. Fishers have been improving fishing strategies but per capita catches are still much lower compared to 3 to 5 decades ago. Furthermore, fishing adjustments, such as improving fishing technology, increasing fishing time and expanding fishing grounds have made fishing much costlier in terms of financial capital, time, energy and even the safety of fishers. Our findings indicate that management efforts must be geared toward fishing pressure regulation and stricter implementation of the law against illegal fishing methods while carefully considering the welfare of the displaced fishers. Initiatives that may lead to increased fishing pressure, like providing fishers with more fishing gears must be avoided as much as possible. Priorities should also be geared toward alternative livelihood and other economic-assistance programs specifically directed toward fishing households, capacity building and education that would increase the chances of fishers or their children to be absorbed in non-fishing occupations.

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X14000463
Impact Factor: 2.23

Richard N. Mualil and Porfirio M. Aliño
Marine Science Institute
College of Science
UP Diliman

Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Fishing Pressure in Small-Scale Fisheries Along the West Philippine Sea Biogeographic Region. Ocean & Coastal Management, 82: 27–33, September 2013.

Fishing is a major and often the only source of livelihood in many coastal communities in the Philippines. High dependency on the fisheries by an expanding population is seriously undermining the long-term sustainability of the fish stocks. Our study explored how various socio-economic factors are associated with fishing pressure. We found that types of alternative livelihoods and fisher age were the most important factors influencing fishing effort. Employed fishers (e.g.  drivers, boat operators, construction workers, carpenters, etc.) had lower fishing effort than both those without alternative livelihoods and self-employed ones (e.g. subsistence farmers/livestock raisers and small business operators). Younger fishers fished more frequently than older ones. Our study provides valuable insights for management interventions that can effectively foster transitions into alternative livelihoods to alleviate fishing pressure while providing fishers with sustainable source of income.

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569113001191
Impact Factor: 1.769

Romell A. Seronay, Richard N. Mualil and Porfirio M. Aliño
Marine Science Institute
College of Science
UP Diliman

Turrid Fishery in Central Visayas, Philippines. Asian Fisheries Science, 27 (1): 30-44, January-March 2014. 

The double barrier reef in the Visayan seas is one of the most productive but heavily exploited fishing grounds in the Philippines. Signs of over-exploitation and depletion of marine resources in the area have been reported in the literature. Turrid snails, although not harvested for food, are becoming threatened due to the increasing demands for ornamental shells and pharmaceutical research on the promising bioactive compounds found in their venoms. In this study, the turrid population was assessed using compressor diving. Overall, a total of 61 turrid species were recorded from the four collection trips (from 2008 to 2010), with an average of 19% new species added to the existing species-list in every collection trip. Family Turridae has the highest contribution of 46% among the six turrid families recorded. Average turrid density extrapolated from 2 m by 50 m belt transect method was 217 individuals. ha-1. Catch per unit effort was about 12 individuals. h diving-1.fisher-1. Repeated collection in the same sites resulted in declining catch rates. In addition, significant shell length reduction, particularly of Crassispiracerithina(Anton 1838) between collection trips, was observed, which could be attributed to the unsustainable harvesting activities of the organism. Our findings serve as important baseline information of turrid populations in the double barrier reef and provide valuable fisheries management insights for the sustainability of these valuable resources. 

Link to the article: http://www.asianfisheriessociety.org/publication/abstract.php?id=1001
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Melisa R. Serrano
SOLAIR
UP Diliman

Between Accommodation and Transformation: The Two Logics of Union Renewal. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 20 (3): 219-235, September 2014.

This article distinguishes between two logics of union renewal: accommodation and transformation. It examine how these logics operate in two industrial unions in Germany and Canada, exploring factors that influence decisions to give priority to one renewal logic. The finding suggest that the two logic can coexist, and that unions are able to alternate between them. Of particular relevance in comparative perspective are some similarities and differences in the renewal processes and strategies pursued by the two unions. 

Link to the article: http://ejd.sagepub.com/content/20/3/219.short
Impact Factor: 0.822

Sylvia B. Concepcion
School of Management
UP Mindanao

Consumer Demand for Minimally Processed Vegetable in Davao City, Philippines. Acta Horticulturae, 1006: 125-1301, September 2013.

In the Philippines, more and more retailers are selling pre-cut, ready-to-cook vegetables. Initially done in an attempt to salvage usable portions of unsold vegetables, pre-cut vegetables are becoming more available in both traditional wet markets and supermarkets, with varying combinations of ingredients  for traditional Filipino dishes. A survey among 300 consumers in Davao City, from three income classes, was conducted to determine their buying habits and market reaction to the purchase of pre-cut vegetables. lt was ascertained that price-sensitive consumers purchase ready to-cook vegetables because they are cheaper and more convenient alternatives to buying whole vegetables. The phenomenon poses risks for consumers’ health as well as opportunities for retailers to respond safely to the emerging need for convenience.

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Desiree M. Hautea
Institute of Plant Breeding
College of Agriculture
UP Los Baños

“Chapter 7: Transgenic Horticultural Crops in Asia” in Transgenic Horticultural Crops: Challenges and Opportunities. Beiquan Mou and Ralph Scorza (editors). New York, USA: CRC Press, 2011.