IPA Awardees for March 2014

Mary Joyce L. Flores
Science Cluster
UP Cebu

An Assessment of the Physicochemical Parameters of Mananga River, Cebu, Philippines. IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, 4 (1): 34-61, December 2012.

The Mananga River today is a source of potable water to meet the demands of a fast growing Cebu metropolis. The river’s physicochemistry was studied to assess its water quality status. Water sample collections were done from February to December 2006 in 3 monitoring stations covering the upstream, midstream and downstream of Mananga River (Photo 1). The studied physicochemical parameters, except for alkalinity, total phosphates and nitrate-nitrogen, in the upstream and midstream portions were significantly different with that in the downstream portion of the river. Except for stream width, biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS), these factors were also observed to change significantly with season. The river’s flow velocity showed significant relationship with its discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrate-nitrogen, water temperature and TSS. Water temperature was also inversely correlated with DO and pH, and positively with TSS, with the latter showing a positive correlation with BOD5. The results implied that water currents play a major role in the distribution of dissolved substances and the suspension of sediments. Water quality of the studied segments of Mananga River progressively decreased downstream and was more pronounced during the dry periods. Results also indicated that the river was receiving loads of organic matter from natural and anthropogenic sources.

 

Link to the article: http://iamure.com/publication/index.php/ijec/article/view/363
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Juancho A. Collera
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
College of Science
UP Baguio

Stability Switch and Periodic Solutions in Delayed Three-Species Model with Holling Type III  Functional Response. Philippine Science Letters, 7 (1): 67-72, March 2014.

This research considers a three-species model with two predator populations feeding on the same prey populations. Preys have the ability that for small densities they are able to evade predators by taking refuge, while the two predator populations are almost identical except for their gestation periods. Our results show that by making the difference in gestation periods large enough, equilibrium could lose stability and then a stable periodic solution emerges. Furthermore, the predator population with longer gestation period oscillates higher than the predator population with shorter gestation period.

 

Link to the article: http://philsciletters.org/2014/PSL%202014-vol07-no01-p067-072%20Collera.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Reniel B. Cabral
National Institute of Physics
College of Science
UP Diliman

Linking Food Security with Coral Reefs and Fisheries in the Coral Triangle. Coastal Management, 42 (2): 160-182, February 2014.

We describe the food security condition of the six countries in the Coral Triangle, namely: Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, and Timor-Leste. Fisheries and coral reefs have direct link to the food security of the six countries as these resources provide various ecosystem goods and services and the six countries are directly dependent on these resources for food and livelihood. Strategies in enhancing food security were offered such as enhancing income redistribution by improving value chains, revenue generation by sustainable use of resources, and threat reduction to maximize benefits generated from fisheries resources. The contribution of small pelagics (e.g., sardines) and tuna to the food security is substantial. Subsistence fisheries play a significant role in maintaining food security at the local level mainly through fish consumed in household but also through livelihoods and multiplier effects on the larger economy.

 

Link to the article:  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08920753.2014.877761#.U6Rs5ZRdX3A
Impact Factor: 0.814

Reniel B. Cabral
National Institute of Physics
College of Science
UP Diliman

A Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Fisheries Ecosystems to Climate Change—Tool for Understanding Resilience of Fisheries (VA–TURF). Fisheries Research, 147: 381–393, October 2013.

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the study of vulnerability of fisheries to climate change at various scales. With a myriad of climate-related threats and pressures in the fisheries ecosystem nowadays, coupled with the worsening socioeconomic conditions in the coastal areas, vulnerability assessment (VA) through a climate lens can enhance the planning and preparation of coastal communities to the impacts of climate change. VA enables better understanding of the interactions of systems, pressures, and threats, which can provide the basis for more targeted management and strategic actions and opportunities to scale-up efforts at various governance levels. We have developed a framework/tool referred to as Tool for Understanding the Resilience of Fisheries (TURF) to assess the vulnerability of coastal fisheries ecosystem in the tropics to climate change. The current version of TURF has already been demonstrated and used in several coastal municipalities in the Philippines and has since then undergone several refinements and improvements. Further, the utility and function of the tool has been demonstrated in all the coastal barangays of the two island municipalities (Lubang and Looc) located along the Verde Island Passage, which has the world’s highest marine shore fish biodiversity. The entire process of scoring and determining the vulnerability of the sites were actively participated by the local stakeholders such as fishers, barangay leaders, residents, and local executive staff of the two municipalities during a series of workshops. Many of the recommendations of TURF have been integrated already in the joint fisheries ecosystem ordinance/law of Lubang and Looc.

 

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783613001719
Impact Factor: 1.695

Ernestina M. Peralta and Augusto E Serrano Jr.
Institute of Fish Processing Technology
Institute of Aquaculture
College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences
UP Visayas

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Content of Mangrove Clam (Geliona erosa) in Guimaras, Philippines Five Years After Oil Spill. AES Bioflux, 6 (1): 62-68, April 2014.

One of the fossil fuel byproducts are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).  We wanted to know whether the levels in the mangrove clam increased or decreased after 5 years since oilspill.  Clam samples were collected in the area and were analyzed for the 16 PAHs’ pollutant. In general, clams contained 41.7-77.8% low molecular (three- and four- ring) aromatics of the total 16PAHs. Phenanthrene was the major component measured in clams with the presence of benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) (0.2-2.5 ng g-1). Results indicated that oil residues from the 2006 incident still persisted in the marine environment. Total 16 PAHs in sediment showed temporal variation and they were mostly higher molecular weight aromatics at a range of 10-489 ng g-1; low molecular weights were at a range of 2.3-30.0 ng g-1. BAP levels in clams were far below the public health level of concern (2.71 ± 0.784 μg kg-1) established by NOAA/FDA. In general, mangrove clams were exposed to lower molecular weight PAHs (7.0-63.7 ng g-1) while high molecular weight PAHs (8.9-389 ng g-1) were more bioavailable to sediments which also showed temporal variation.

Link to the article: http://www.aes.bioflux.com.ro/
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Ernestina M. Peralta and Augusto E Serrano Jr.
Institute of Fish Processing Technology
Institute of Aquaculture
College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences
UP Visayas

Activity of Naturally Occurring Antioxidants During Heat Processing of Low-Salt Fermented Shrimp Paste. ABAH Bioflux, 6 (1): 27-33, February 2014.

We wanted to find out if or not antioxidants are produced in low-salt bagoong with cooking.  Shrimp (Acetes sibugae) was mixed with a ratio of 1:7 (salt:shrimp) and allowed to ferment for 15 days at room temperature (28 – 32 °C). Changes in antioxidant activity were measured during fermentation and heat-processed shrimp paste with added ingredients. Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities from day 1 significantly increased at day 5, with minimal increase as fermentation progressed to day 15 and with no significant differences. DPPH scavenging activity generally increased in the varying heat processing employed in cooking shrimp paste. On the other hand, although hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity significantly increased after 10 min heating, activity decreased in the 30 min boiling and pasteurization except for sample product with no ingredients added. The study showed that the consequence of processing and preservation procedures on the overall antioxidant activity of shrimp paste is generally the result of different reactions which probably took place consecutively or simultaneously. Thus, processing methods may either improve the properties of naturally occurring antioxidants or induce the formation of new compounds having antioxidant properties.

Link to the article: http://www.abah.bioflux.com.ro/
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Niceto S. Poblador
School of Economics
UP Diliman

The Strategy Dilemma: Why Big Business Moves Seldom Pan Out as Planned. DLSU Business and Economics Review, 23 (2): 1-9, January 2014.

Steve Jobs once famously said, “You can’t connect the dots looking forward.” We cannot agree more with this observation. Today’s information-driven world has become increasingly complex and unpredictable. Under these unsettled conditions, making strategic and policy choices has become an increasingly daunting task for both business managers and development planners alike. The recent breakdown of financial markets and the many high-profile corporate failures in the aftermath of the “Great Recession” of 2008 gave further impetus to the growing suspicion about the importance of strategic roadmaps for achieving corporate and economic objectives. There are many reasons why business and economic plans often fail to meet their intended objectives. Foremost among these are the unexpected responses from the organization or the economy itself, as well as the unforeseen feedback from key elements in the environment. These unpredictable responses are the offshoot of the complex dynamics that are common to all forms of social systems. The predictive theoretical models and statistical procedures that are currently in use are simply unreliable for plotting the future of organizations and societies. In the face of uncertainty, there is no guarantee that the chosen strategic direction is the “correct” one, and there is always the danger that the organization or the community will find itself locked into untenable situations. To avoid lock in, organizational and social planners must be able to detect emergent patterns with sufficient lead time, and to change courses in a timely manner without having to incur huge switching costs. This requires a more “experimental” approach to making strategic organizational and social choices.

Link to the article: http://nspoblador.webs.com/poblador_article.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Judilyn N. Solidum
College of Pharmacy
UP Manila

Peel Wastes of Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Sandoricum koetjape Merr., Citrus nobilis Lour. As Lead and Cadmium Biosorbent in Manila Tap Water. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 16 (2): 28-35, December 2013.

People wouldn’t exactly want to drink water with soil or candy wrappers or decaying substances in it. But would a clear drinking water mean a healthy one? Manila tap water collected from different areas showed contamination of lead and cadmium, chemicals which can’t be seen by the naked eyes but are dangerous to health. Santol, dalandan and pineapple peels were collected, processed and used as biosorbent of these heavy metals in contaminated water. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy was used to measure the amounts of the heavy metals present in the simulated contaminated laboratory prepared water and the actual Manila tap water before and after application of the peels. The peel bio-sorption was optimum at pH 5. The amount of lead and cadmium adsorbed increased with time until 120 minutes. As heavy metals increased, the peels’ biosorption efficiency decreased. Lead biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model but for cadmium, Langmuir isotherm model was followed by santol and pineapple. The biosorption followed the second order kinetics. Santol showed the highest percent biosorption efficiency for lead and cadmium. Peels are there not just for the integrity of the fruits but also to improve health by aiding in cleaning contaminated tap water. Fruit peels then may be of aide in decreasing lead and cadmium amounts in Manila Tap water. Such processing is highly valuable for environmental and public health.

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/JESAM/article/view/1112
Impact Factor: 0.18

Sir Anril P. Tiatco
Department of Speech Communication and Theatre Arts
College of Arts and Letters
UP Diliman

The Philippine Komedya and the Recuperation of the Cosmopolitan: From Colonial Legacy to Cross-Cultural Encounter. Modern Drama, 57 (1): 94-121, January 2014.

This essay is a proposal to critically examine komedya as a national theatre before institutionalizing it as such. I use cosmopolitan argument in this critical interrogation instead of the usual argument of nationalism, which is predicated on a sense of homogeneity. The reason is simple: the Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands. From this geographical setting alone, we can infer that the islands in the archipelago are separated but at the same time integrated. In this way, a framework of homogeneity is problematic. These archipelagic senses of integration and separation are simple ways to understand cosmopolitanism.

Link to the article: http://utpjournals.metapress.com/content/r37j111510474412/
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Carla B. Dimalanta
National Institute of Geological Sciences
College of Science
UP Diliman

Abnormal Weather Events in 2009, Increased Precipitation and Disastrous Impacts in the Philippines. Climatic Change, 118 (3-4): 715-727, June 2013.

The analysis of weather events in 2009 was presented in this study. Changes in the normal weather patterns include: 1. Too much precipitation throughout the year, 2. Some areas received a lot of rain while other parts of the country went through dry spell and drought conditions; and 3. Abnormalities and variance in weather patterns. Disasters during that period resulted from both extreme weather events and low intensity, normal regular weather systems associated with abnormal amount of precipitation.

Link to the article: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-012-0661-8#page-1
Impact Factor: 3.634

Nymia P. Simbulan
Department of Behavioral Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Manila

The State of Children with Disabilities in Eastern Samar. Acta Medica Philippina, 47 (3): 32-41, July-September 2013.

The article presents the situation of children with disabilities (CWD) in Eastern Samar, particularly the problems and difficulties experienced by the children and their families in addressing their various needs. The descriptive, quantitative study which relied on the survey method had 916 study respondents who were chosen using a purposive sampling technique from seven municipalities of Eastern Samar. Coming mostly from poor and big agricultural families with family size  ranging from 6-7 members, the dominant forms of disabilities of children include hearing, mental, physical and visual disabilities, which many families accepted with resignation and as God’s will. Most families were unable to meet the special needs of CWD because of economic difficulties and inaccessibility of programs and services in their localities. It is important and urgent to raise the capabilities of families of CWD to enable them to meet their needs and develop coping behaviors that will help alleviate their conditions and expand their options in society. This will entail a multi-stakeholder collaboration in the community and society.

Link to the article: http://actamedicaphilippina.com.ph/content/volume-47-no-3
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Nymia P. Simbulan
Department of Behavioral Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Manila

Condom Negotiations among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Environmental Influences. Plos One, 7 (3): e33282, 9 pages, March 2012.

The study looks into the environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSW) at high risk of acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Philippines. A sample size of 498 FSW, aged 18 years and over, was interviewed on their sexual health practices in 54 work environments. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Socio-economic and environmental factors like trafficked/coerced into work, non-use of condom with clients to make more money, unavailability of condom in the workplace, and individual risk of the FSW involving substance use, were independently associated with FSWs’ lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. The results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions that will reduce barriers to condom negotiation for FSWs trafficked/coerced into their work, engaged in substance use, and impacted by economic conditions and policies that do not support condom availability should be in place.

Link to the article: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0033282
Impact Factor: 3.73

Michelle Marie S. Villamayor, Leo Mendel D. Rosario, Julie Anne S. Ting, Beverly Ann T. Suarez, Maricor N. Soriano and Henry J. Ramos
National Institute of Physics
College of Science
UP Diliman

Observation of Plasma-Facing-Wall via High Dynamic Range Imaging . Plasma and Fusion Research, 8 (Special Issue 1): 2401116, 4 pages,  September 2013.

Target erosion and material deposition onto a viewing port have been monitored by merging the low dynamic range photos to construct high dynamic range pictures. Dust-like deposits on the wall can be monitored successfully during plasma operation via HDR images. Colour based measurement was attempted in order to monitor dust settlement in accordance with time advancement. The method has exhibited how dust-like deposits are distributed on the chamber wall. As the method is simple and a small camera can be installed conveniently to a device, monitoring of plasma experiment device can be made easily without major modification.

Link to the article: http://www.nifs.ac.jp/pfr/2013/pfr2013_08-2401116.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Aris A. Reginaldo and Anna Pauline O. de Guia
Department of Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences
College of Science, College Arts and Sciences
UP Baguio, UP Los Baños

Species Richness and Patterns of Occurrence of Small Non-Flying Mammals of Mt. Sto. Tomas, Luzon Island, Philippines. Philippine Science Letters, 7 (1): 37-44, February 2014.

This study examined the patterns of occurrence and abundance of six species of native and three species of non-native rats and shrew in habitats with varying degrees of disturbance. It was observed that although both groups of small mammals were observed to move across habitats, non-natives were mainly restricted to disturbed areas. Data showed that while there is difference between the pattern of native and non-native mammals, there is also specific patterns exhibited by individual species. Among the endemic species, the Cordillera striped shrew rat, Chrotomys whiteheadi,had the greatest tolerance for disturbance, even occurring in the most highly disturbed habitats. There is also a strong indication that different species of non-native species respond differently. The abundant and non-native, Polynesian rat,Rattus exulans, tended to only reach disturbed areas of forests, but is not well-adapted to such habitat. This study further suggests that native rats are not easily displaced by the introduced or non-nativespecies, especially in habitats with varying degrees of disturbance.

Link to the article: http://philsciletters.org/
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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