IPA Recipients for April 2018

Rafael Vincent M. Manalo and Paul Mark B. Medina
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
College of Medicine
UP Manila

The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Disease Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, 19 (2): 59-68, April 2018.

Fig. 1. The unfolded protein response (UPR) activates pathways dedicated to cell survival and cell death. In the presence of aberrations, HSP90 dissociates from PERK that then phosphorylates eIF2α to attenuate protein translation. Likewise, it activates ATF4 that induces the transcription of CHOP – an apoptotic signal, and miR-211 that controls it. miR-211 acts as a molecular switch, which downregulates during persistent stress, allowing CHOP to accumulate and mediate apoptosis. On the other hand, unfolded proteins activate IRE1 that upon autophosphorylation induces splicing of Xbp1, which assists protein folding and degradation.

Fig. 2. The ER Overload Response (EOR) as a response to homeostatic perturbations. (A) Normal processes in oxidative phosphorylation and cell-cell communication provide reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ at basal levels. In perturbations due to infection, toxins, or unfolded proteins, ROS production exceeds threshold, releasing calcium stores into the cytosol and triggering the EOR to upregulate NF-κB, which leads to inflammation. (B) In reality, Ca2+ transport is a homeostatic process. In the absence of perturbation, Ca2+ is released from the ER and refilled to serve cell signalling and signal transduction purposes. In the event of ROS overproduction, TMCO1, a recently discovered Ca2+ ion channel in the ER, might be affected to perturb this equilibrium, leading to Ca2+ in the cytosol which when coupled with ROS above threshold will activate the EOR.

Many disease of epidemiologic significance, such as infectious and non-communicable diseases, are almost always studied separately. However, the tissues affected in all of these diseases — be it neuronal, muscular, epithelial or connective – all have one thing in common: they all have an endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Surprisingly, this organelle is the principal actor in disease, since it acts to maintain homeostasis and directs the cell to fix any problems that tend to tip this balance. Therefore, it is possible that viral infection, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases like as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, all converge to a similar pathway through the ER. This brings guided benefit to biomedicine, and might give rise to drugs that target more than one disease — probably through the most unexpected connections! Far from resounding a ‘cure-all’ panacea, this perspective takes on a new path for drug research. Drug repurposing has shown us that a single drug can attempt to treat two unrelated diseases. By elucidating converging pathways at the ER, we might just be able to find multi-hit drugs more efficiently!

Link to the article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110863017300678
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Xiao Gui and Maribel Dionisio-Sese
Institute of Biological Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Los Baños

Identification of Resistant Germplasm Containing Novel Resistance Genes at or Tightly Linked to the Pi2/9 Locus Conferring Broad-Spectrum Resistance against Rice Blast. Rice, 10 (1); 37, 11 pages, December 2017.

Fig. 1
Frequency of Nbs2-Pi2 and Pi2 alleles in 3024 rice germplasm accessions. The figure was constructed using the program of Sigmaplot.

Rice blast is a major scourge to rice farmers. It is a persistent and devastating plant disease that affects rice production in all rice-growing areas worldwide. It is caused by a fungal pathogen called Magnaporthe oryzae. This fungi can easily overcome genetic resistance introduced in rice plants through genetic engineering. The rice plants’ genetic resistance to rice blast cease to be effective two to three years after it is introduced to the rice plants. This makes the rice plants vulnerable again to the disease that often comes in more virulent forms. This makes the control of rice blast continuingly quite difficult There are presently just about 100 rice blast resistance genes and only about 350 resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that have been identified. The rice Pi2/9 locus harbors multiple resistance genes each controlling broad spectrum resistance against diverse isolates of the rice blast fungus.The identification of more resistance germplasm containing novel resistance genes at or tightly linked to P12/9 locus would promote breeding of rice vultivars resistant to rice blast. The newly developed genetic marker Pi2/9-RH could be used as a potentially diagnostic marker for the quick identification of resistance germplasms containing functional Pi2/9 alleles of unknown linked resistance genes. The three new monogenic lines containing the Pi2/9 introgressions segment could be used as valuable materials for disease assessment and resistanc e donors in breeding programs against rice blast.

Link to the article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12284-017-0176-z
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 3.739

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Aila Nica Bandong
Department of Physical Therapy
College of Allied Medical Professions
UP Manila

Referral to Specialist Physiotherapists in the Management of Whiplash Associated Disorders: Perspectives of Healthcare Practitioners. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 34: 14-26, April 2018.

Fig. 1. Referral to specialist physiotherapists. Decisions that specialist physiotherapists would make for people who are at medium/high risk of experiencing prolonged pain and disability as a component of the proposed clinical pathway of care for WAD.

Perceptions on referral to specialist physiotherapists of primary health care practitioners (physiotherapists, chiropractors and osteopaths) who treat people with whiplash injury were explored through focus group discussions across New South Wales and Queensland Australia. Results of this study showed that referral to specialist physiotherapists is feasible and considered a viable option particularly for people with whiplash injury who are demonstrating poor/slow recovery. Practitioners had good knowledge of indicators for referral; however, referrals were often made to the general medical practitioner, less commonly to specialist physiotherapists. Practitioners had differing views on the attributes of specialist physiotherapists and timeframes for referral. They also expressed desired outcomes of the referral including education and feedback from the specialist physiotherapist and patient advocacy. There was a preference for a collaborative shared care approach in management that involved the referring practitioner. Barriers identified by practitioners involved challenges with clarification of roles and lack of access to specialist physiotherapists. These could be addressed by creating a database of specialist physiotherapists that would be made available to practitioners and emphasizing a shared-care approach in management.

Link to the article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S246878121730173X
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Florencia G. Palis
Department of Social Sciences
College of Arts And Sciences
UP Los Baños

Integrating Indigenous Knowledge for Technology Adoption in Agriculture” in Indigenous Knowledge: Enhancing Its Contribution to Natural Resources Management. Paul Sillitoe (editor). United Kingdom: CAB International, 2017.

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Guillermo Q. Tabios III
Institute of Civil Engineering
College of Engineering
UP Diliman

Multiple and Integrated Water Resources Utilization” in Water Policy in the Philippines: Issues, Initiative, and Prospects. Agnes C. Rola, Juan M. Pulhin and Rosalie Arcala Hall (editors). Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018.

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Guillermo Q. Tabios III
Institute of Civil Engineering
College of Engineering
UP Diliman

National and Local Initiatives in Addressing Water Supply Sustainability” in Water Policy in the Philippines: Issues, Initiative, and Prospects. Agnes C. Rola, Juan M. Pulhin and Rosalie Arcala Hall (editors). Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018.

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Aurelio A. de los Reyes V
Institute of Mathematics
College of Science
UP Diliman

Mathematical Model and Intervention Strategies for Mitigating Tuberculosis in the Philippines. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 443: 100-112, 14 April 2018.

Fig. 1. Flow diagram of the TB transmission model.

Despite various government efforts to facilitate the detection and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in the Philippines, it is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among Filipinos. In this study, a TB dynamic model is adapted to include the TB-mortality rate and the model parameters are estimated based on the Philippine TB incidence data. Time-dependent intervention strategies have been obtained using optimal control theory, the reduction of incidence under different intervention scenarios are shown, and the cost-effective and efficient control strategies are suggested to mitigate the spread of TB in the country. Four different control strategies were considered, namely, distancing, latent case finding, case holding, and active case finding control. Several case scenarios were investigated to qualitatively assess the cost-effectiveness of the control measures. Single, coupled, and threefold control schemes were investigated in this study. Among the four single controls, distancing control is the most effective strategy but with a high social cost. Thus, pharmaceutical controls are alternative interventions. It can be inferred from this work that active case finding control should be given more emphasis as a control intervention to combat the transmission of TB in the Philippines. The implementation such control is a challenging and demanding task due to cultural, socioeconomic, and health systems factors. Hence, more specific and effective interventions are needed to specifically convince active-TB patients to undergo proper diagnosis and treatment in the Philippines.

Link to the article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519318300420
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 2.113

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Julius Fergy T. Rabago and Jerico B. Bacani
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
College of Science
UP Baguio

On Two Nonlinear Difference Equations. Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems Series A: Mathematical Analysis, 24 (6): 375-394, 2017.

The behavior of solutions of the following nonlinear difference equations

xn+1 = q/(p+xnν) and yn+1 = q/(p+ynν),   n = 0, 1, 2, … is studied for real nonzero initial conditions x0 and y0, nonzero real parameters p,q and a natural number ν. In particular, the solution forms of the system when ν = 1 are expressed in terms of Horadam numbers using an analytical approach. Meanwhile, the behavior of the solutions is investigated for all integers ν > 1, and several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the results. It is shown that, under appropriate assumptions, the solution of the above system converges to some fixed number (a,b). In addition, it is shown that the system admits a periodic solution of period two when certain conditions are also met.

This work provides a generalization of the investigation carried out by Tollu et al.  [Adv. Differ. Equ., 2013:174 (2013), 7 pages].

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Rizalyn M. Picoy-Gonzales and Harold M. Monteclaro
Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanology
College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences
UP  Visayas

Effects of Net Height of Crab Entangling Nets on the Capture of Targeted Economically Important Portunid Species and Non-Target Species. Fisheries Science, 83 (6): 907–915, November 2017.

Entangling gillnets are popular fishing gears used to catch blue swimming crabs locally called alimasag. However there are concerns on the use of this gear particularly on the capture of bycatch and discards. Bycatch are fish and marine species that are not targeted by the fisher. Some of these species often end up discarded or thrown away by the fisher. This practice is destructive to the marine environment because it contributes to the loss of biodiversity and loss of potential food items for humans. In this study, we wanted to know the capture performance of entangling gillnets with the following net heights – 12 meshes (or openings) from top to bottom, 24 meshes and 50 meshes. We caught a total of 1290 individuals that was comprised of 87 species. We found that net height affects the amount and size of catch. With lower net height, the amount of non-target catch decreased by 70%. Also, nets with 24 mesh heights caught just as much crabs as the higher nets but with less juvenile crabs. We recommend the use of entangling gillnets with 24 meshes high. With this design, the crab fisher produces less discards and undersized crabs while maintaining his income. The reduction in the capture of bycatch and discards and the protection of undersized individuals are welcome measures in conserving marine resources. We hope that these results are useful for fishery managers and government agencies tasked to manage blue crab resources.

Link to the article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12562-017-1126-9
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.839

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Teresa S. Encarnacion-Tadem
Department of Political Science
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

Technocracy and Class Politics in Policy-Making” in Routledge Handbook of The Contemporary Philippines. Mark Thompson and Eric Vincent C. Batalla (editors). New York, USA: Routledge, 2018.

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Ma. Victoria R. Raquiza
National College of Public Administration and Governance
UP Diliman

The Allure of Pantawid Pamilya: The Conditional Cash Transfer Program” in Routledge Handbook of The Contemporary Philippines. Mark Thompson and Eric Vincent C. Batalla (editors). New York, USA: Routledge, 2018.

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Jorge V. Tigno
Department of Political Science
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

The Philippines in 2017: Popularity Breeds Contempt. Asian Survey, 58 (1): 142-148, January-February 2018.

The article provides some insights on the year that just passed for Rodrigo Duterte and his administration. It is a year marked by division and conflict over his war on drugs, his position towards the US and the West, as well as his take as a former city mayor. For all his bluster, Duterte has yet to show that he can build and strengthen institutions. His attacks on allies of the previous administration (or rather the attacks initiated by his allies in Congress) have become a hallmark of his presidency.

Link to the article: http://as.ucpress.edu/content/58/1/142
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.323

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Christine Jurene O. Bacal and Eizadora T. Yu
Institute of Chemistry
Natural Sciences Research Institute
College of Science
UP Diliman

Cellulolytic Activities of a Novel Fomitopsis sp. and Aspergillus tubingensis Isolated from Philippine Mangroves. Philippine Journal of Science, 146 (4): 403-410, December 2017.

Fungal endophytes, species of fungi residing inside the host plant, survive by producing hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading plant cell walls. Degradation products are then being utilized as their food. These hydrolytic enzymes belong to a diverse family of enzymes responsible for the assembly and breakdown of complex carbohydrates. These enzymes are known as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys). There are a lot of cAZys but we select endoglucanase, endoxylanase, and beta-glucosidase as representative enzymes for this study. Endoglucanase is responsible for hydrolyzing the long chain of cellulose releasing “chopped” products for further attack by beta-glucosidases. Beta-glucosidases convert this “chopped” cellulose into glucose – cellulose’s simplest form. Endoxylanase has the same activity with endoglucanase but it acts on xylan, a component of hemicellulose. Cellulose is responsible for the structure of the plant whereas hemicellulose forms a network with cellulose contributing to the plant’s resilience. We aim to find cAZys from endophytic fungi that can be upscaled and recombinantly expressed in the industry. To determine if the fungus secrete a possibly potent cAZy activity, a preliminary qualitative test was done by measuring clearing zones in the plate. Large clearing zones indicate a possibly potent cAZy. Then, we induce the activity of the enzymes by growing them in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), beechwood xylan (XYL), and potato dextrose (PD) – the soluble derivatives of cellulose and xylan. We discovered that the novel fungi, JB10 and JB11 have the greatest endoxylanolytic and endocellulolytic activity in PD. Increased beta-glucosidase activity was observed in CMC and XYL.

Link to the article: http://philjournalsci.dost.gov.ph/pdf/pjs_pdf/vol146no4/cellulolytic_activities_of_a_novel_fomitopsis_sp.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Marvin L. Samaniego
Environmental Engineering Program
College of Engineering
UP Diliman

Kinetics of Sulfur Removal in High Shear Mixing-Assisted Oxidative-Adsorptive Desulfurization of Diesel. Journal of Cleaner Production, 178: 468-475, 20 March 2018.

Sulfur compounds in fossil fuels are responsible for various toxic emissions during combustion. The current and more stringent global environmental regulations render the conventional sulfur removal techniques inadequate. In this study, the removal of sulfur from diesel fuel was done in two sequential steps: (1) oxidation of sulfur compounds, and (2) the adsorption of oxidized sulfur onto commercial adsorbents. Oxidative desulfurization of diesel was performed in a glass vessel equipped with a high shear mixer set at 12,000 rpm. Phosphotungstic acid, tetraoctylammonium bromide and hydrogen peroxide were used as catalyst, phase transfer agent and oxidant, respectively. Adsorption was carried out using powdered alumina, granular alumina and powdered activated carbon (PAC), and granular activated carbon (GAC). Adsorption kinetic study was done in order to understand the physical and chemical processes involved. The sulfur removal by the four types of adsorbents conformed to pseudo-second order model, implying that chemisorption was the rate-limiting step. The effects of boundary layer diffusion and intraparticle diffusion in sulfur removal were analyzed using the 2-line Weber-Morris plots. The calculated rate constants implied that boundary layer diffusion proceeded at a faster rate than the rate-determining step which was intraparticle diffusion. Higher intraparticle diffusion coefficient values were observed for powdered alumina due to its larger particle size and, consequently, smaller surface area where the sulfur compounds tend to be more readily adsorbed.

Link to the article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095965261830060X
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 5.715

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Herman Joseph S. Kraft
Department of Political Science
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

Great Power Dynamics and the Waning of ASEAN Centrality in Regional Security. Asian Politics and Policy, 9 (4): 597-612, October 2017.

The article is about looking at the diminishing relevance of ASEAN centrality to the regional security situation of East Asia and the broader Asia Pacific region. For the past twenty-five years, the security of the region has been based on a security architecture built around overlapping multilateral arrangements where the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been acknowledged (with varying degrees of seriousness) to be the driving force behind maintaining security and sustaining economic progress in the region. This meant that ASEAN (as an institution and as a collective of countries in Southeast Asia) was given some degree of leadership responsibility largely in the absence of any institutionalized arrangement led by any of the great powers. This goes against traditional notions of regional security anchored on the material capabilities of great powers balancing these capabilities through a mix of diplomacy and the display of military might. Nonetheless, this “ASEAN centrality” has been a key fixture (and an accepted one at that) of the way security is dealt with in the region.
More recently, the capacity of ASEAN to act collectively especially on issues that threaten regional peace and stability has been compromised by divisions wrought by varying degrees of dependence (particularly in the economic sphere) on China’s growing economy. China’s emergence as an economic power has in the years since 1997 (the year of the Asian financial crisis) translated into increased influence over political developments in the Asia Pacific. More importantly, it has given China confidence to be more assertive over territorial issues and, more broadly, having a stronger voice in shaping the geopolitical condition of the region. A number of countries in the region, especially within ASEAN, have in fact begun to act as surrogates of Chinese interests.
China’s rise has put right into a collision course with the United States of America which is still considered to be the hegemonic power in the region. This is a position that China has begun to challenge using its quickly consolidated economic influence. While China has proposed a different kind of great power relationship, one that effectively shares leadership across the region, the United States remains intent on keeping its pre-eminence. While some scholars have argued that this will inevitably lead to a clash between the two powers (even a prospect of a “hegemonic war”), it has definitely compromised the position of ASEAN as the driving force behind regional security.
Division within ASEAN wrought to a significant degree by economic dependence to China has made it difficult for ASEN to act together on issues of regional strategic concern. Thus the principal means by which great power conflict can be prevented, i.e. regional multilateral institutions, has been compromised. Great power dynamics have effectively curtailed a role that ASEAN has sought to play in the region. ASEAN centrality is no longer something that can guarantee regional security.

Link to the article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/aspp.12350
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Sally B. Gutierez
National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development
UP Diliman

Becoming Teacher-Researchers: Teachers’ Reflections on Collaborative Professional Development. Educational Research, 59 (4): 444-459, 2017.

In some educational systems, there has been an increased focus on teacher professional development (PD) in recent years. In the Philippines, this has been accompanied by recent reforms in the basic education curriculum, which have called for increased efforts in teacher capability-building and the enhancement of pedagogical content knowledge. While a wide range of characteristics of effective teachers’ PDs exists, important ones are strengthened when both the teachers and the providers possess collective responsibility and accountability for the outcomes (Wells 2014). Thus, this study aims to provide baseline information about the significance of collaborative professional development in understanding the classroom dynamics whose end product is enhanced students’ achievement. Results showed that through collaboration, sustainability, trust, and commitment, the teachers recognized the advantages of classroom-based research in the improvement of their instructional capacities. This study yielded three major themes on the importance of classroom-based research as revealed by their reflections: increased understanding of classroom dynamics; shared ownership and involvement; and reflective practice to connect and resolve ideas against prior beliefs. With their full involvement, the classroom research-based PD employed in this study empowered teachers and eliminated the negative notions of research and rather was used as an opportunity for immediate learning.

Link to the article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00131881.2017.1347051
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.909

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Mark Dondi M. Arboleda
School of Environmental Science and Management
UP Los Baños

Utilization of Putatitive of Enterobacter Isolate and Substrates for Microbial Fuel Cells. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 20 (2): 88-94, Decemebr 2017.

Link to the article: https://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/JESAM/article/view/1690
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.323

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Io M. Jularbal
Department of Language, Literature and the Arts
College of Arts and Communication
UP Baguio

A Rhetorical Analysis of Isabelo F. de Los Reyes’s El TinguianHumanities Diliman, 14 (2): 91-120, July-December 2017.

The study gives a more modern interpretation of Isabelo F. de los Reye’s descriptions of the Tinguians. As the first native to study the Indigenous population in Abra during the Spanish colonial period, de los Reyes would find himself caught between two worlds; his Illustrado modern colonial lifestyle and his reconnection with his more ancient native past.In studying the Tinguans of Abra, he would find that learning about these indigenous people would become a self-reflection which not only criticizez his subjects of his study but also of himself. The Tinguians for de los Reyes would present themselves as the Filipino in its earliest form, natural, authentic, and untainted; completely free from any colonial influence.But they also present themselves to be what progress and civilization has forgotten. De los Reyes’s identification with theTinguian now becomes a matter of trying to balance a more anthropological and scientific approach with a nationalistic sense of acknowledging the native. By looking into de los Reyes’s notes, we understand the issues on how the Filipino would apprehend the indigenous other. Identification with the indigenous does imply a looking back and appreciation with the past but also presents a separation as the native becomes subject for the educated. Indeed, the act of studying and observing the other becomes a priveledge.

Link to the article: http://journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/humanitiesdiliman/article/view/5764
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Godofreda V. Dalmacion*, Antonia E. Habana** and Emmanuel S. Baja***
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology*
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology**
College of Medicine
Institute of Clinical Epidemiology***
National Institutes of Health
UP Manila

Handheld Ultrasound to Avert Maternal and Neonatal Deaths in 2 regions of the Philippines: An iBuntis® Intervention Study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 18: 32, 8 pages, January 2018.

The project is funded by Grand challenges Canada under Saving Lives. It showed that deaths and catastrophies during childbirth could be prevented if pregnant women even without any abnormal signs and symptoms undergo handheld ultrasound as early as the 5th month of pregnancy. How many babies are present, is the placenta located abnormally which can cause heavy and fatal bleeding, the well being of your child using amnotic fluid index and the position of the baby can all be determined using the handheld ultrasound. Any abnormalities in them can cause complication and even death in either infant or mother or even both during labor and delivery. Once a mother knows her pregnancy is problematic, she can be motivated to go for more regular prenatal visits and plan appropriately for a facility-based delivery. Eventually maternal and neonatal deaths or complications can be averted. Midwives, nurses and general practitioners of the community health team are reliable when trained to do ultrasound in the field.

Link to the article: https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12884-018-1658-8
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 2.263

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Virginia R. Ocampo, Flor A. Ceballo and Pio Javier
Institute of Weed Science, Entomology and Plant Pathology
College of Agriculture and Food Science
UP Los Baños

Insecticidal Activity of Selected Essential Oil Extracts Against Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Philippine Journal of Science, 146 (3): 247-256, September 2017.

Essential oil extract from rhizomes of Luyang dilaw as botanical insecticide against cutworm.

Essential oil from leaves of Lantana a botanical pesticide against cutworm, second to luyang dilaw.

Plants are known sources of secondary chemicals with various properties such as medicinal, insecticidal, antifeedant, repellent or as sources of fragrances, food flavors and colors. These substances can be extracted using equipment and solvents to separate the oil, the essential oil (EO). The essential oils from four plant species: lankuas, Alpinia pyramidata; lantana, Lantana camara; oregano, Coleus amboinicus and yellow ginger, Cucurma longa were evaluated in the laboratory against the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura. The most toxic oil was yellow ginger (LC50 =5.93 mg/mL) applied onto the leaf of pechay (leaf residue film method). When applied directly onto the body of the larva, the most toxic oil was from lankuas (LD50 =693.86 µg/g insect). The EO from lankuas also reduced the feeding activity of the larva (rate of 16 mg/mL acetone). The second most toxic EO was from lantana applied directly onto the body of the larva and onto the pechay leaf. The oil with the highest repellency was from yellow ginger applied 16 mg/mL acetone. Lantana oil showed insect growth regulatory activities with more number of larval-pupal intermediates produced. Yellow ginger oil produced more individuals with abnormalities in the pupae and adults. Additionally, yellow ginger oil shortened the life span of the insect from nine days to seven or eight days. Looking at the overall pesticidal properties of the four essential oils, oils extracted from yellow ginger and lantana have the potential to be used as botanical insecticides to manage cutworm infestation in leafy vegetables like pechay and cabbage.

Link to the article: http://philjournalsci.dost.gov.ph/pdf/pjs_pdf/vol146no3/insecticidal_activity_of_selected_essential_oil_extracts_against_cutworm.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Elizaldy A. Maboloc
Marine Science Institute
College of Science
UP Diliman

Effects of Salinity Variations on the Rates of Photosynthesis and Respiration of the Juvenile Giant Clam (Tridacna gigas, Bivalvia, Cardiidae). Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 50 (4): 273-284, 4 July 2017.

Link to the article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10236244.2017.1386861
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.958

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Sharon N. Nuñal* and Sheila Mae S. Santander-De Leon**
Institute of Fish Processing Technology*

Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanology**
College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences
UP Visayas

Hydrocarbon Degradation and Bacterial Community Responses During Remediation of Sediment Artificially Contaminated with Heavy Oil. Biocontrol, 22 (4): 187-203, 2017.

Microcosms containing marine sediment, seawater, oil and bioremediation agents used in the study.

The main author conducting the DGGE experiment.

Oil pollution in the marine environments from anthropogenic activities has been a perennial problem worldwide. Several scientific studies have been conducted with an aim of offering solutions that are environment-friendly and sustainable. These approaches to clean up oil pollution through natural biological means is called “bioremediation”. In our previous published work we have described the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains that are capable of digesting oil components. As a continuation, we tested the capacity of these isolated bacteria to degrade oil through microcosm studies containing marine sediment and seawater. We compared the effectivity of the strains against the bacteria found in the natural environment and that of the natural bacteria whose growth have been enhanced by nutrients. Within a 60-day period we monitored the residual oil components and the changes in the amount and the kind of bacteria present at different time intervals. It was found that native bacteria found are capable of digesting oil but in a very slow rate. If their growth was enhanced by addition of nutrients they can outperform the activities of the isolated oil-degrading bacteria which survived poorly when added in the natural environment. Nutrient addition also promoted the growth of both the natural oil degrading and non-oil degrading bacteria. Some of the oil components were degraded faster while others can still persist at high levels even if bioremediation agents were added. These findings can be useful in implementing bioremediation strategies for oil pollution that can overcome the limitations of the natural degradation processes.

Link to the article: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bio/22/4/22_187/_article/-char/ja/
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.743

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Sharon N. Nuñal* and Sheila Mae S. Santander-De Leon**
Institute of Fish Processing Technology*

Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanology**
College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences
UP Visayas

Bacterial Community Composition Shifts in Sediments Influenced by Fish Feeds. Aquaculture Research, 48 (8): 4380-4389, August 2017.

Diagram of methods of sediment microcosm experiment.

Shiraishi Lake Oyster farm – site where sediment for microcosm was collected

Marine fish farming is the culture of fish in marine environment. Fish feeds which are composed of protein, such as fish meal and plant materials are used to grow the fish. Not all feeds, however, are eaten. This uneaten feeds go to the environment, including the water and sediment. This then changes the types of bacteria which are doing the recycling job in order to avoid polluting the environment. The study found out that uneaten feeds in fish farms are changing the bacteria that dwell in areas with oxygen into bacteria without oxygen, “the anaerobes”. An example of these anaerobes is Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB). SRB produces sulfide which are toxic to animals. The condition without oxygen but with high sulfide levels results to mortality of fish cultured, also known as “massive fish kills” and of the other organisms present in farm vicinities.

Link to the article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/are.13261
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 1.461

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Danilo J. Lalican, Ernesto B. Cayaban Jr., Sancho G. Bon, Ann Mylalulex M. Magnaye, Katrina B. Malabanan-Bauan, Jose E. Hernandez, Pompe C. Sta. Cruz, Teresita H. Borromeo, Fe D. Alzona*, Ester A. Magsino* and Angelina DR. Felix**
Institute of Crop Science
National Crop Protection Center*
College of Agriculture and Food Science
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food**

College of Human Ecology
UP Los Baños

NSIC RC 418 (Sahod Ulan 14): A New UPLB-Developed Rainfed Lowland Rice Variety (Oryza sativa L.) for Dry-Seeding. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 42 (2): 66-69, August 2017.

Palay and grain milled samples of NSIC Rc 418 or Sahod Ulan 14.

Rainfed rice contributes to around 30% of the total rice production areas in the Philippines, and yields about 4.5 M mt of rice annually. Although most rice breeding efforts are focused on irrigated rice areas, the University of the Philippines Los Baños-Rice Varietal Improvement Team (UPLBRVIT) has been continuously developing rainfed lowland rice varieties both for transplanted and dry-seeded culture. NSIC Rc 418 is the latest rainfed lowland rice variety developed by UPLBRVIT for dry-seeding. It is a medium-maturing, semi-dwarf rainfed rice variety that has a mean yield of 3.76 t/ha, which is better than check varieties such as PSB Rc 14. It has intermediate reaction to common diseases such as rice blast, bacterial leaf blight and sheath blight. It also has resistance to stemborers, and exhibits intermediate reaction to hoppers. NSIC Rc 418 also has excellent grain quality with good milling potential, intermediate amylose content, and good acceptability in both raw and cooked form.

Link to the article: https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20173297240
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.115

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Julius Fergy T. Rabago
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
College of Science
UP Diliman

Effective Methods on Determining the Periodicity and Form of Solutions of Some Systems of Non-Linear Difference Equations. International Journal of Dynamical Systems and Differential Equations, 7 (2): 112–135, 2017.

Number sequences often arise from recursion relations. Typical examples are those obtained from linear recurrence equations such as the arithmetic sequence and the well- known Fibonacci number sequence. Difference equations, which have been of great interest  in previous decades, are known to fall in this category. In this study, we aim to describe the qualitative behaviour of solutions of some systems of non-linear difference equations. This investigation is motivated by earlier results in this area wherein different systems of difference equations have been solved in closed forms. We have seen that several earlier results concerning the form of solutions of these types of equations were established through a mere application of principle of induction, and no further justifications on how these formulae are obtained were stated. Our specific purpose here is to fill these gaps and to provide theoretical explanations on how these results can be established analytically. Several numerical examples are also provided in the paper to illustrate the results exhibited in the present work.

Link to the article: https://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJDSDE.2017.085825
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Jay S. Fidelino, Mariano Roy M. Duya and Perry S. Ong
Institute of Biology
College of Science
UP Diliman

Plant Diversity Patterns in Remnant Forests and Exotic Tree Species-Based Reforestation in Active Limestones Quarries in the Luzon and Mindanao Biogeographic Sub-Regions in the Philippines. Ecological Research, 33 (1): 63–72, January 2018.

Forests over limestone in the Philippines have been subject to quarrying for products needed in the construction industry, resulting in forest fragmentation. Exotic species-based reforestation areas were subsequently created to address this loss. In this study, diversity patterns of trees, herbs, and epiphytes (climbing plants) were assessed in these two anthropogenically created habitats in active limestone quarries in Luzon and Mindanao. We identified 266 tree species, 95 herbaceous species, and 97 epiphytic species. Of these 458 species, 21 were categorized as threatened. Species composition differed between remnant forests and exotic species-based reforested areas for trees and epiphytes, and between Luzon and Mindanao for trees only. Differences in the number of species were also observed between Luzon and Mindanao for all plant groups, but only for trees and epiphytes between forest remnants and reforested areas. Interestingly, significantly fewer exotic species were found in bigger remnant forests and in older exotic species-based reforested sites, while more native species were found in older than in younger reforested sites. These results emphasize the importance of understanding forest recovery dynamics in disturbed ecosystems Conservation attention should focus on protecting remaining forests and planting native species as part of a forest restoration strategy to enhance faster forest recovery and reconnect remnant forest patches.

Link to the article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11284-017-1533-5
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 1.283

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