IPA Recipients for August 2017

Melchizedek Alipio and Nestor Michael Tiglao
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute
College of Engineering
UP Diliman

Cache-Based Transport Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Future Directions. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 88: 29-49, 15 June 2017.

Catchy title of research: A Comprehensive Survey of Cache-based Transport Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Data delivery in soil monitoring for smart farming.

The main functions of transport layer of the network stack is to guarantee end-to-end reliability and error control.  This means that the network protocol must be able to deliver all packets sent from the source to the intended destination.  In wireless sensor network, these objectives are more difficult to achieve compared with wired networks because of the higher probability of error due to interference and loss of connection due to the broadcast nature of wireless transmission.Cache-based transport protocols leverage the use of caching some nodes in the network to keep copies of the packets and if necessary retransmit them from those nodes closer to the destination than the source. This mechanism can improve network performance but will add complexity to the protocols.

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1084804517301443
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 3.5


Jan Robert R. Go
Department of Political Science
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

Of Choices, Changes, and Challenges: The Philippines in 2016. Philippine Political Science Journal, 38 (1): 48-73, 2017. 

Figure 1. Social Weather Stations survey from January to May 2016 for presidential candidates. Source: SWS (2016).

In the Philippines, the year 2016 can be characterized in terms of choices, changes, and challenges. As an election year, the people once again chose a new set of leaders from the president down to the local level. From the five candidates for the presidency, Rodrigo Duterte of Davao emerged as the victor. His rise to the top has led to several changes in terms of presidential style, management, and politics. His war on drugs received both acclamations and criticisms from various sectors in the Philippines and abroad. The first six months of the Duterte administration is not without its share of issues and controversies, ranging from domestic issues such as the Marcos burial to international ones like the perceived anti-United States and pro-China and Russia foreign policy. But challenges, like the federalism campaign and peace talks with the rebels, remain as the Philippines end the year and move forward to 2017.

Link to the article: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01154451.2017.1330022
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.333


Eden May B. Dela Peña
Department of Mining Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering
UP Diliman

Electrochemical Effect of Copper Gleam Additives during Copper Electrodeposition. Transactions of the IMF, The International Journal of Surface Engineering and Coatings, 95 (3): 158-164, 2017. 

Catchy title of research: Effect of additives on acid-free, low metal ion concentration for Copper electrodeposition

Figure 1. Comparison of polarization curves of acid-free low Cu concentration electrolyte (E-0) and standard electrolyte (S-0), both without additives.

Figure 2. Cathodic polarization of acid-free, low Cu concentration electrolyte: (i) without additive, (ii) with Copper Gleam B, (iii) with a mixture of Cl and Copper Gleam B and (iv) recommended concentrations of Cl, Copper Gleam B and Copper Gleam A.

Photolithography has been a standard process in the industry for micro-patterning. However, this process is multi step and uses copious amount of highly acidic electrolyte. Due to this, researches are geared towards finding an alternative process to photolithography. One possible alternative is a mask-less process, which uses an acid-free low Cu concentration electrolyte.
The industry has a set of standards for copper to be used in electronic applications. This could be achieved using a set of proprietary additives called Copper Gleam (Copper Gleam A and B). The electrochemical effects of additives on the acid-free low Cu concentration electrolyte are still unknown. Therefore, this is a vital investigation that needs to be addressed before the electrolyte could be used for such application.
In this study, it was found that when additives were used separately, it inhibits deposition. Whereas, Copper Gleam A accelerates the plating process. The electrochemical effect of additives was interpreted in terms of the adsorption-desorption behavior on the cathode surface.

Link to the article: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00202967.2017.1256103?journalCode=ytim20
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.802


Pio Gabrille B. Calderon and Aurelio A. de los Reyes V
Institute of Mathematics
College of Science
UP Diliman

Control Aspects of the Human Cardiovascular-Respiratory System under a Nonconstant Workload. Mathematical Biosciences, 289: 142-152, July 2017.

Catchy title of research: Modeling the response of cardiovascular-respiratory system under a time-varying workload

Figure 1: Block diagram of the cardiovascular-respiratory system model depicting blood flow and control loops.

Figure 2: Control dynamics u1 and u2 and the corresponding response of the state variables H, Pas, VA and Pa,CO2.

The primary task of the cardiovascular-respiratory system (CVRS) is to generate adequate oxygenated blood to exercising tissues to fulfill metabolic demand and to guarantee the removal of metabolic end-products. Coordinated control mechanisms are needed to perform its function which is energy efficient, minimizing unnecessary stress. In particular, the amount of O2 and CO2 transported to and away from the tissues, respectively, demands a tight coordination of CVRS control loops. This work considers a CVRS model to obtain an optimal control for time-dependent ergometric workloads by using the Euler-Lagrange formulation of the optimal control problem. Essential controls in the model include the variations in heart rate and alveolar ventilation through which the central nervous system restricts the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Pa,CO2) close to 40 mmHg. Further, the cost functional includes penalty terms which enforce that the metabolic demand for O2 and the metabolic production of CO2 are matched with the transport of O2 and CO2 by the circulation in the CVRS.

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002555641630342X
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 1.246


Alonzo A. Gabriel, Errol John O. Ables and Cecile Leah P. Tiangson-Bayaga
Department of Food Science and Nutrition
College of Home Economics
UP Diliman

Estimation of Grapefruit Juice Color Degradation from Physicochemical Properties and Thermal Inactivation Parameters of E. coli O157:H7. Philippine Journal of Science, 146 (1): 65-79, March 2017.

Hue angle (°h) shift in heat-treated grapefruit juice indicated by simultaneous changes a* (redness-greenness) and b* (yellowness-blueness). White marker denotes a* and b* coordinates of the untreated control, while green markers are those of grapefruit juices subjected to high-low variable combinations. Red markers represent coordinate values of juices subjected to the very low/high-intermediate variable combinations, while the yellow markers indicate those of juices subjected to the replicated intermediate variable combinations.

Fruit juices are used as alternatives in providing our daily nutritional requirements. The juice is heat pasteurized to ensure safety for consumption. However, thermal processing can degrade the quality of the juice particularly in color and heat labile nutrients. The established predictive model in this study can be used to estimate the effect of intrinsic property of juice (soluble solid), extrinsic property (temperature and time) in the International de l’Eclairage (CIE) color space coordinates, and derived color parameters in grapefruit juice. The established model may be used with other quality and pathogen inactivation models for a more comprehensive control of food safety and quality.

Link to the article: http://philjournalsci.dost.gov.ph/index.php/51-current-issue/philippine-journal-of-science-vol-146-no-1-2017/633
Impact Factor: Not yet available


Benny Marie B. Ensano* and Mark Daniel G. de Luna
Environmental Engineering Program*
Department of Chemical Engineering
College of Engineering
UP Diliman

Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater by Intermittent Electrocoagulation. Water, 9 (85): w9020085, 15 pages, 2017.

Figure 1. Experimental setup of the electro-chemical reactor.

The continuous release of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the aquatic environment, as a result of the inadequate removal by conventional treatment methods, has prompted research to explore viable solutions to this rising global problem. One promising alternative is the use of electrochemical processes since they represent a simple and highly efficient technology with less footprint. In this paper, the feasibility of treating ECs (i.e., pharmaceuticals) using an intermittent electrocoagulation process, a known electrochemical technology, has been investigated. Diclofenac (DCF), carbamazepine (CBZ) and amoxicillin (AMX) were chosen as being representative of highly consumed drugs that are frequently detected in our water resources and were added in synthetic municipal wastewater. The removal efficiencies of both individual and combined pharmaceuticals were determined under different experimental conditions: hydraulic retention time (HRT) (6, 19 and 38 h), initial concentration (0.01, 4 and 10 mg/L) and intermittent application (5 min ON/20 min OFF) of current density (0.5, 1.15 and 1.8 mA/cm2). Results have shown that these parameters have significant effects on pharmaceutical degradation. Maximum removals (DCF = 90%, CBZ = 70% and

AMX = 77%) were obtained at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2, an initial concentration of 10 mg/L and HRT of 38 h.

Link to the article: https://doaj.org/article/e278e3b9764a4369b1fc9573003d2ec6
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 1.832


Carl Abelardo T. Antonio and Emerito Jose Faraon
Department of Health Policy and Administration
College of Public Health
UP Manila

Healthcare Access and Quality Index Based on Mortality from Causes Amenable to Personal Health Care in 195 Countries and Territories, 1990–2015: A Novel Analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet, 390 (10091): 203-332, 15 July 2017.

Catchy title of research: First-ever global study finds massive health care inequity

Figure 1 Map of HAQ Index values, by decile, in 1990 (A) and 2015 (B) Deciles were based on the distribution of HAQ Index values in 2015 and then were applied for 1990. HAQ Index = Healthcare Access and Quality Index. ATG=Antigua and Barbuda. VCT=Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. LCA=Saint Lucia. TTO=Trinidad and Tobago. TLS=Timor-Leste. FSM=Federated States of Micronesia.

Performance of the HAQ Index and 25 individual causes by the fourth SDI quartile (A), third SDI quartile (B), second SDI quartile (C), and first SDI quartile (D) in 2015 In addition to the HAQ Index, all causes presented in this figure are scaled 0 to 100, with 100 being the “best” value (ie, lowest observed age-standardised risk-standardised mortality rate by cause) and 0 being the “worst value” (ie, highest observed age-standardised risk-standardised mortality rate by cause) between 1990 and 2015. Within each SDI quartile, countries and geographies are ordered by their HAQ Index in 2015. HAQ Index=Healthcare Access and Quality Index. SDI=Socio-demographic Index.

A first-ever global study finds massive inequity of access to and quality of health care among and within countries, and concludes people are dying from causes with well-known treatments. Having a strong economy does not guarantee good health care. Having great medical technology doesn’t either. We know this because people are not getting the care that should be expected for diseases with established treatments.
For example, on a scale of 0 to 100 for health care access and quality, Norway and Australia each scored 90 overall, among the highest in the world. However, Norway scored 65 in its treatment for testicular cancer, and Australia scored 52 for treating non-melanoma skin cancer.
The paper does offer some favorable signs of improvement in health care access and quality. Since 1990, several countries have achieved progress that met or surpassed levels reached by other nations of similar development. These countries included Turkey, Peru, South Korea, the Maldives, Niger, Jordan, and several Western European nations such as Switzerland, Spain, and France. (from the official press release)

Link to the article: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)30818-8/abstract
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 47.831


Carl Abelardo T. Antonio
Department of Health Policy and Administration
College of Public Health
UP Manila

Future and Potential Spending on Health 2015–40: Development Assistance for Health, and Government, Prepaid Private, and Out-of-Pocket Health Spending in 184 Countries. Lancet, 389 (10083): 2005–2030, 20 May 2017.

Catchy title of research: Widely disparate spending on health forecast through 2040

Figure 1 Process diagram for estimating future GDP, all-sector government spending, and health spending by source The process diagram indicates the data used by each ensemble for estimating future GDP, all-sector government spending, government health spending, prepaid private health spending, out-of-pocket health spending, or DAH. The number of models considered is the universe of specific model specifications considered for that ensemble model. Each individual model was tested against three exclusion criteria. The number of models that passed each criterion is also indicated. DAH=development assistance for health. GDP=gross domestic product.

Figure 2 Increases in health spending by source, 2016 World Bank income group, and GBD super region in 2014–40 Per capita spending is measured in 2015 purchasing power parity US$. The left side of each bar marks the 2014 health spending for each group. The right side of the bar represents the expected 2040 health spending. The bar shows the expected increase in health spending between 2014 and 2040, and highlights the source of the spending growth. GBD=global burden of disease.

Spending on health care by nations is expected to increase significantly over the next two decades, but the rates of increase and sources of spending will differ widely, according to a new analysis.
If current trends continue, overall expenditures will increase from US $9.2 trillion in 2014 to US $24.5 trillion in 2040.
The sources of those funds include government health spending, private spending – both out-of-pocket and prepaid health expenditures, such as insurance – and development assistance for health. Percentages of spending as compared to a nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita will likely fluctuate greatly.
Health spending is likely to increase rapidly in high-income countries, while low-income countries, where it is needed the most, are expected to see relatively slow growth. (from the official press release)

Link to the article: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)30873-5/fulltext
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 47.831


Carl Abelardo T. Antonio
Department of Health Policy and Administration
College of Public Health
UP Manila

Estimates of Global, Regional, and National Morbidity, Mortality, and Aetiologies of Diarrhoeal Diseases: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 17 (9): 909–948, September 2017.

Catchy title of research: Despite substantial global reduction in diarrhea deaths, half a million children still die from diseases each year

Figure 1
Under-5 diarrhoea mortality rate per 100 000 population
(A) Under-5 mortality in 2015. (B) Under-5 mortality in 2005. ATG=Antigua and Barbuda. VCT=Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. LCA=Saint Lucia. TTO=Trinidad and Tobago. TLS=Timor-Leste. FSM=Federated States of Micronesia.

The number of child deaths caused by diarrhea reduced by a third between 2005 and 2015, but mortality rates remain highest in some of the world’s poorest countries, with diarrhea killing almost half a million children under 5 years old each year worldwide.
The study finds that diarrhea is the fourth leading cause of death for children and responsible for 8.6% of all deaths of children aged under 5. Forty-two percent of these deaths occur in India and Nigeria alone.
The study estimates that, in 2015, there were 2.39 billion episodes of diarrheal disease globally, with 957.5 million of these being in children. There were a total of 1.31 million deaths as a result of diarrhea globally in 2015, including 499,000 child deaths.
While mortality rates have reduced substantially (by 20.8% overall and 34.3% in children), the incidence of the disease has not reduced nearly as fast (5.9% reduction overall and 10.4% reduction in children). As a result, diarrhea still causes a significant amount of disability that mostly affects children under 5 years old. (from the official press release)

Link to the article: http://thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(17)30276-1/abstract
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 19.864