IPA Recipients for June 2017

Junius André F. Balista
Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Physics
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Los Baños

Axial Segregation of Granular Mixtures as the Rotational Stabilization of the Radial Core. Granular Matter, 19 (2): 39, 9 pages, May 2017.

Catchy title of research: Explanation of granular material segregation inspired by asteroids and artificial satellites

A binary mixture of granular materials partially
filling a cylindrical or spherical container rotating along the horizontal axis will first radially segregate (larger and smoother grains aggregate to the periphery while the smaller and rougher grains form the core of the bulk) then axially segregate (the sheath made of the larger grains breaks up exposing the radial core).

The deformation of the prolate radial core to an array of more oblate structures (discs, spheres, or “shish-kebab”) increases the moment of inertia.

At an appropriate rotational speed, a mixture of large and small grains inside a rotating horizontal cylindrical container first radially segregate, such that the larger grains go to the periphery and the smaller grains form the core. Then axial segregation occurs, such that the sheath made of larger grains breaks up. This second segregation forms an alternating bands of large and small grains. These fascinating pattern formation occur if the container is rotating at a speed such that the mixture appears like a single rod rolling at a steady pace. We propose that this phenomenon occurs because an elongated object is unstable if it is made to rotated along its longer axis. Since the granular mixture is deformable, it stabilizes by deforming to a series of discs or sphere, where the individual rotation axis is shorter. This explanation was inspired by the observation that asteroids tend to be spinning spheres or discs, and not spinning cylinders.

Link to the article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10035-017-0721-x
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 1.740

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Julius Fergy T. Rabago
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
College of Science
UP Baguio

Supplement to the paper of Halim, Touafek and Elsayed: Part I. Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems Series A: Mathematical Analysis, 24 (2): 121-131, 2017.

Catchy title of research: Solution of a nonlinear difference equation in terms of Fibonacci numbers

This work supplements the paper [Closed form solutions of some systems of rational difference equations in terms of Fibonacci numbers, Dynam. Cont. Dis. Ser. A, 21(6) (2014), 473–486.]. That is, an alternative proof – short and elegant – is offered in order to explain theoretically the results presented in the paper which were established through a mere application of the induction principle. Further results regarding the periodicity of solution of the system being examined is also presented.

Link to the article: http://online.watsci.org/abstract_pdf/2017v24/v24n2a-pdf/2.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Erlinda Castro-Palaganas and Ruel Caricativo
Institute of Management
Department of Economics and Political Science
College of Social Sciences
UP Baguio

An Examination of the Causes, Consequences, and Policy Responses to the Migration of Highly Trained Health Personnel from the Philippines: The High Cost of Living/Leaving—A Mixed Method Study. Human Resources for Health, 15 (25): 14 pages, 2017.

An examination of the causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of highly trained health personnel from the Philippines: the high cost of living/leaving—a mixed method study.

The migration of highly skilled health professionals from developing to developed nations has increased dramatically in the last ten years in response to a range of social, economic and political factors. The consequences of this shift in health human resources can be of critical importance to the overall sustainability of health systems in many of these ‘source’ countries.  These consequences have become much more salient in the ongoing debate about the reliance of some high income countries on health workers who migrate from low and middle income countries. Few studies examine these trends and their consequences from a comparative approach – those that do exist typically focus on macro health indicators which do not allow for a broader investigation of the range of implications the migration of health workers has for patients, providers and health systems. Further, an almost exclusive focus has been on medical and nursing practitioners without considering the roles of other highly skilled health professionals who are also critical to the sustainability of developing health systems. Research to date has also given less attention to the range of responses that various policy decision-makers can and have undertaken to stem the tide of emigrating workers.
The study explored the following questions: 1) What is the present picture of /recent historic trends in the migration of highly skilled health personnel from the Philippines; 2) What, according to various stakeholders ‘on the ground’ in these countries, are the most critical consequences of the migration of highly skilled health workers; 3) How could these consequences be ‘measured’ optimizing the potential for comparative policy analysis? and 4) What is the range of policy responses that have been considered, proposed and implemented to address the critical causes and consequences of health worker migration from these countries, and what have been some of the outcomes of these responses?
This mixed method study employed a decentered, comparative approach that involved three phases: (a) a scoping review on health workers’ migration of relevant policy documents and academic literature on health workers’ migration from the Philippines; and primary data collection with (b) 37 key stakeholders and (c) household surveys with seven doctors, 329 nurses, 66 midwives, and 18 physical therapists.
Filipino health worker migration is best understood within the context of macro-, meso-, and micro-level factors that are situated within the political, economic, and historical/colonial legacy of the country. Underfunding of the health system and un- or underemployment were push factors for migration, as were concerns for security in the Philippines, the ability to practice to full scope or to have opportunities for career advancement. The migration of health workers has both negative and positive consequences for the Philippine health system and its health workers. Stakeholders focused on issues such as on brain drain, gain, and circulation, and on opportunities for knowledge and technology transfer. Concomitantly, migration has resulted in the loss of investment in human capital. The gap in the supply of health workers has affected the quality of care delivered, especially in rural areas. The opening of overseas opportunities has commercialized health education, compromised its quality, and stripped the country of skilled learning facilitators. The social cost of migration has affected émigrés and their families. At the household level, migration has engendered increased consumerism and materialism and fostered dependency on overseas remittances. Addressing these gaps requires time and resources. At the same time, migration is, however, seen by some as an opportunity for professional growth and enhancement, and as a window for drafting more effective national and inter-country policy responses to HRH mobility.
Unless socioeconomic conditions are improved and health professionals are provided with better incentives, staying in the Philippines will not be a viable option. The massive expansion in education and training designed specifically for outmigration creates a domestic supply of health workers who cannot be absorbed by a system that is underfunded. This results in a paradox of underservice, especially in rural and remote areas, at the same time as underemployment and outmigration. Policy responses to this paradox have not yet been appropriately aligned to capture the multilayered and complex nature of these intersecting phenomena.

Link to the article: https://human-resources-health.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12960-017-0198-z
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 2.416

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Joyce Raymond B. Punzalan
School of Statistics
UP Diliman

Binocular Sensitivity and Specificity of Screening Tests in Cross-Sectional Diagnostic Studies of Paired Organs. Statistics in Medicine, 36 (11): 1754–1766, 20 May 2017.

Link to the article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sim.7251/abstract
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 1.533