IPA Recipients for October 2016

Jose Ernie C. Lope and Mark Philip F. Ona
Institute of Mathematics
College of Science
UP Diliman

Holomorphic and Gevrey Solutions of a Singular Integro-Differential Equation. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1707: 040001, 7 pages, 11 February 2016.

Finding solutions to differential equations is an important problem in applied and also theoretical mathematics. In this research, we study an integro- differential equation and show that it has a power series solution. The said equation arose from investigations in differential geometry. We will use a fixed point argument and a family of functions to show that the equation has unique and convergent series solution. In addition, if the coefficients of the equation are divergent series of a certain kind, then we prove that the solution will also be a divergent series of the same kind.

Link to the article: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/10.1063/1.4940830
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Kristian Saguin
Department of Geography
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

Blue Revolution in a Commodity Frontier: Ecologies of Aquaculture and Agrarian Change in Laguna Lake, Philippines. Journal of Agrarian Change, 16 (4): 571–593, October 2016.

Figure 1. Laguna Lake and the surrounding areas

Figure 2. Laguna Lake fish production through aquaculture and Capture fisheries, 1980-2010.

Figure 2. Laguna Lake fish production through aquaculture and Capture fisheries, 1980-2010.

Aquaculture transforms agrarian and ecological conditions in places where they are introduced. In this paper, I framed the history of aquaculture development and agrarian change in Laguna Lake as a narrative of nature’s appropriation in spaces produced as capitalist commodity frontiers. I used ethnographic and historical data to demonstrate the centrality of nature in three features of agrarian change in the lake: commodity widening in the fisheries sector, aquaculture producer strategies of working with nature’s materiality, and corresponding transformations in lake villages. I emphasized the importance of ecological relations and contradictions between aquaculture and capture fisheries in shaping agrarian configurations in the lake and elsewhere.

Link to the article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/joac.12114/full
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 1.226

Menandro N. Acda
Department of Forest Products and Paper Science
College of Forestry and Renewable Resources
UP Los Baños

Physical and Chemical Properties of Fuel Pellets Agricultural Residues. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 99 (3): 283-287, September 2016.

Catchy title of research: Fuel Pellets from Philippine Agricultural Residues

Fig. 1.  Fuel pellets from rice husk, rice straw and sugarcane bagasse.

Fig. 1. Fuel pellets from rice husk, rice straw and sugarcane bagasse.

The study investigated the properties of fuel pellets from Philippine agricultural residues namely rice straw, rice hull, corn cobs, sugarcane bagasse, waste tea leaves, tobacco stalks, dalandan peelings and banana peduncles, Pili nuts.  Chemical analyses were performed to assess fuel properties of pellets from biomass residues.  In general, physical properties including mechanical durability, calorific values and potential level of pollutant emission were within recommended limits of compressed solid fuel for industrial thermal processes.  However, high levels of ash and deposit forming elements were detected from fuel pellets produced using agricultural residues used in this study.  These limitations may pose a major challenge for use of agricultural residues as fuel pellets in the Philippines.

Link to the article: http://www.pas-uplbca.edu.ph/issues.php
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 0.266

Virginia R. Ocampo, Flor A. Ceballo and Pio A. Javier
Crop Protection Cluster
College of Agriculture
UP Los Baños

Insecticidal Activity of Four Essential Oils against Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 99 (2): 156-163, June 2016.

Catchy title of research: Plant-Derived Insecticides Against Diamondback Moth Infestation in Pechay

Essential oil from rhizomes of Luyang dilaw as botanical insecticide against diamondback moth.

Essential oil from rhizomes of Luyang dilaw as botanical insecticide against diamondback moth.

 

Essential oil from leaves of Oregano a botanical pesticide against diamondback moth, second to luyang dilaw.

Essential oil from leaves of Oregano a botanical pesticide against diamondback moth, second to luyang dilaw.

The insecticidal action of plant substances plays a major role in the management of many insect pests. Plant secondary chemicals are of particular interest because they can also be used as medicine, food and beverage flavoring, fragrance, etc.; hence they are generally safe for humans and non-target organisms. In particular, the use of essential oils (EOs) derived from plants with insecticidal activities has considerably increased due to the demand for organically grown crops and pesticide-free products.
The EOs from leaves of lantana (Lantana camara Linn.) and oregano (Coleus amboinicus Loureoiro), and rhizomes of lankauas (Alpinia pyramidata Blume) and luyang dilaw (Curcuma longa Linn.) were extracted  and evaluated for their contact toxicity, antifeedant activity, repellency and growth regulatory activities against the second larval instar of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linn.) These four Philippine plants were selected because of their promising insecticidal activity and safety since they are reported to possess medicinal values.
Among the four EOs, luyang dilaw was the most toxic against DBM applied topically and through leaf residue film method. It also provided the highest repellency at 250 ppm. Oregano ranked second in topical toxicity and also showed remarkable insect growth regulatory activity against DBM. Only lankauas provided the highest antifeedant activity at 125 ppm. In view of the overall pesticidal potential of the plant extracts, EO from luyang dilaw and oregano can be successfully exploited as botanical insectidice for sustainable pest management of the diamondback moth.

Link to the article: http://www.pas-uplbca.edu.ph/issues.php
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 0.266

Nina G. Gloriani
Department of Medical Microbiology
College of Public Health
UP Manila

Occurrence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Pathogenic Vibrios Isolated from Green Mussel, Perna viridis L. 1758 in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Philippines. Acta Medica Philippina, 49 (4): 39-44, 2015.

Catchy title of research: Mussels or tahong  from Bacoor Bay, Cavite tested positive for  Vibrio cholerae bacteria: Red flags for Public health intervention

The intake of mussels, locally known as “tahong” , a favorite dish among Filipinos, has been associated with several reports of watery diarrhea.  This study examined 90 samples of mussels collected from Bacoor Bay in Cavite, one of the biggest sources of mussels supplying markets in Metro Manila for the presence of Vibrio cholera, an important cause of rice watery diarrhea.  All 90 mussel samples  tested positive for pathogenic vibrios, the type that could cause disease.  The presence of these pathogenic vibrios was higher with higher temperature, salinity and pH of the water samples. Majority of the vibrio isolates were resistant to ampicillin. These results indicate that potentially pathogenic vibrios can pose a health hazard to mussel consumers in Bacoor, Cavite and its nearby towns. The isolation of potentially pathogenic vibrios from mussels is a health risk for people especially those consuming raw seafoods.  It is important that health education and promotion on this health risk be made part of the health programs for the community.  

Link to the article: http://actamedicaphilippina.com.ph/
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Leni G. Yap-Dejeto
Division of Natural Science and Mathematics
Tacloban College
UP Visayas

Bloom of Trichodesmium (Oscillatoriales, Phormidiaceae) and Seasonality of Potentially Harmful Phytoplankton in San Pedro Bay, Leyte, Philippines. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 64 (2): 897-911, June 2016.

Catchy title of research: “Red Tide” of a Different Kind

The cyanobacteria, Trichodesmium that bloomed in San Pedro Bay, Leyte Philippines last April of 2013.

The cyanobacteria, Trichodesmium that bloomed in San Pedro Bay, Leyte Philippines last April of 2013.

“Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB’s)”, that is how scientists call “Red Tide”.  It’s a better term since the sea does not really turn red; more like brownish red during the phenomena. And, the turning of the tides does not cause it.  This hue is actually millions of tiny plants, microalgae that have multiplied and bloomed.  The most popular “Red Tide” causing organism or “harmful algae” in the Philippines is the Pyrodinium bahamense var compressum. This organism secretes toxins that cause paralysis or even death to people who consume the shellfish that accumulated the toxin.  But this is not the only algae that secretes toxin or cause HAB’s.  There are many other harmful algae out there.  Their toxin may not be as potent to cause paralysis, but some can lead to severe health problems such as diarrhea, vomiting, and even short-term memory loss and sometimes also death.
A survey in San Pedro Bay, a site of blooms of Pryrodinium was done. In April of 2013, a bloom of the cyanobacteria called Trichodesmium was observed. This cyanobacteria is a nitrifying bacteria, a diazotroph; that means, it can “fertilize” the sea. There were 19 other potentially harmful microalgae that were caught in our plankton nets, including the paralytic toxin producing Pyrodinium. But these did not reach bloom proportions during the study period. In fact Pyrodinium has not bloomed in the area since 2007. Last November 2012, the bay was declared free from this toxic “red tide” (BFAR, 2012).

Link to the article: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=44945722035
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 0.441

Christian Joseph R. Cumagun
Crop Protection Cluster
College of Agriculture
UP Los Baños

Philippine Fungal Diversity: Benefits and Threats to Food Security” in The Handbook of Microbial Bioresources. Vijai Kumar Gupta, Gauri Dutt Sharma, Maria G. Tuohy and Rajeeva Gaur (editors). Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: CAB International, 2016.

Eduardo R. Magdaluyo Jr., Marthony S. Ausa and Robert J. Tinio
Department of Mining Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering
UP Diliman

Effect of Titanium on Gouging Abrasion Behavior and Hardness of Austenitic Manganese Steel” in Transactions on Engineering Technologies. Sio-Iong Ao, Gi-Chul Yang and Len Gelman (editors). Singapore: Springer, 2016.

Karl Anton M. Retumban
School of Statistics
UP Diliman

Interdependence of Philippine Stock Exchange Sector Indices: Evidence of Long-Run and Short- Run Relationship. Philippine Statistician, 65 (1): 85-105, 2016.

Figure 1. Philippine Stock Exchange Sector Indices and PSEi.

Figure 1. Philippine Stock Exchange Sector Indices and PSEi.

Understanding the dynamics of the financial market of a particular economy is of great interest to various institutions and stakeholders. For the government, it helps in the formulation of various economic and financial policies used for regulatory purposes that will promote market equilibrium. While for other institutions and stakeholders, it gives them an edge in terms of investing and is a necessity for business survival. A good indicator of the general state of an economy is the stock market index. The Philippine Stock Exchange or PSE is the national stock exchange of the Philippines and has over 250 listed firms. The companies listed in the PSE are grouped into six sub-indices representing different sector of the economy. These are the financials, holding firms, industrial, mining and oil, property and services market sector indices.
The objective of this study is to examine the long-term and short-term dynamics among the six market sector indices of the PSE. It aims to determine if there is an existing long-run relationship among the sector indices. It also aims to capture whether there is a short-run causality among the sector indices and identify the direction of the causality. Moreover, it also aims to determine if the shock from one sector index can affect the variation of other sector indices.
The results confirm the existence of cointegration among the six sector indices implying that the indices follow a common trend and have a long-run relationship. Also, there is a uni-directional causality existing among the sector indices.

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Mario R. Delos Reyes
School of Urban and Regional Planing
UP Diliman

Analysis and Lessons from Decentralisation and Its Implications to Local Environmental Planning and Management in the Philippines” in Decentralisation and Regional Development: Experiences and Lessons from Four Continents over Three Decades. Eva Dick, Karin Gaesing, Daniel Inkoom and Teodoro Kausel (editors). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Sally B. Gutierez
National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development (NISMED)
UP Diliman

Building a Classroom-Based Professional Learning Community through Lesson Study: Insights from Elementary School Science Teachers. Professional Development in Education, 42 (5): 801-817, 19 October 2016.

The recent implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum has drawn much attention for most educators to undergo capability building mostly focused on the enhancement of teachers’ instructional practices. One initiative is the adaptation and implementation of lesson study which is built upon a framework that deeply involves teachers in a research-based and collaborative planning, implementing, and evaluating their current teaching strategies. In lesson study, the lesson plan and the students’ responses to the lesson implementation are treated as the object of professional learning which is collaboratively evaluated and revised by a group of teachers to improve their instructional strategies.
Lesson study, incorporates most of the promising features of a PD model where teachers work with colleagues and experts to increase their opportunities to improve their instructional practices. Moreover, the reflective practice embedded in the entire process builds the foundation for teachers to establish a learning community that is built upon constructive and shared repertoire of professional knowledge development.

Link to the article: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19415257.2015.1119709
Impact Factor: Not yet available

Kong Chhuon
Department of Environmental Engineering
College of Engineering
UP Diliman

Application of Integrated Hydrologic and River Basin Management Modeling for the Optimal Development of a Multi-Purpose Reservoir Project. Water Resources Management, 30 (9): 3143–3157, July 2016.

Catchy title of research: Application of Modeling Tools for the Integrated Hydrologic and River Basin Management

Location of study area (Prek Te River basin) and its DEM

Location of study area (Prek Te River basin) and its DEM

 

(a)Watershed system in SWAT; (b) River network and water allocation system in MODSIM

(a) Watershed system in SWAT; (b) River network and water allocation system in MODSIM

This study was conducted in a river basin in Cambodia where water resources and related developments are prerequisite for improving livelihood. The study aims to adequately determine an optimal domestic and irrigation water resources allocation scheme based on an assessment of the reservoir water balance and capacity for hydropower. To achieve this goal, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to characterize the basin hydrology using 26 years of weather data. The River Basin Management Support System MODSIM on the other hand was used to model the hydropower operation, and the water allocation optimization for domestic and irrigation. An operational rule curve was developed for hydropower operation with respect to a power potential of 13 MW. Examination of the system water balance showed that supply for irrigation can be sustained vis-a-vis the use of the reservoir for hydropower. This study present a new approach incorporating effective decision support tools for examining water balance and determining an optimal operational rule curve for multi-purpose operation. In the context of water resource management and development in a rural environment like in Cambodia, this approach for water allocation optimization using models is a new approach to be considered in water infrastructure development such as irrigation and hydropower. 

Link to the article: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11269-016-1336-4
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 2.437

Fernando P. Siringan
Marine Science Institute
College of Science
UP Diliman

Source-To-Sink Transport Processes of Fluvial Sediments in the South China Sea. Earth-Science Reviews, 153: 238–273, February 2016.

Catchy title of research: A look into the past using clay mineralogy of the South China Sea

This study synthesized all of the existing clay mineralogical and geochemical data from seafloor and river samples (Figure 1 & 2) covering the entire SCS region. The combined data made it possible to describe the modern SCS sediment transport processes from the river mouth to the continental shelf and then to the abyssal basin.  

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012825215300295
Impact Factor: (2015/216) 6.991

Rene N. Rollon
Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology
College of Science
UP Diliman

Preliminary Assessment of Post-Haiyan Mangrove Damage and Short-Term Recovery in Eastern Samar, Central Philippines. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 109 (2): 744–750, 30 August 2016.

Catchy title of research: Eastern Samar mangroves after Haiyan: A preliminary assessment of damage and recovery

Fig.3 Defoliated Sonneratia alba growing sprouts 4.5 months after Haiyan, Guiuan, Eastern Samar. Photo by ZSL/C.L. Montilijao.

Fig.3 Defoliated Sonneratia alba growing sprouts 4.5 months after Haiyan, Guiuan,
Eastern Samar. Photo by ZSL/C.L. Montilijao.

 

Fig. 4 Eastern Samar natural mangroves: total devastation in natural mangrove, Hernani (top) and plantation, Maliwaliw, Salcedo (bottom). Photos by ZSL/C.L. Montilijao and E. Germano.

Fig. 4 Eastern Samar natural mangroves: total devastation in natural mangrove, Hernani (top) and plantation, Maliwaliw, Salcedo (bottom). Photos by ZSL/C.L. Montilijao and E. Germano.

Strong winds and storm surges from Typhoon Haiyan caused damage of US$12–15 billion and >10,000 human casualties in central Philippines in November 2013. To validate a proposed government US$22 million mangrove replanting program, mangrove damage and short-term recovery were surveyed in seven natural and planted mangrove sites in Eastern Samar province at 2.5 month and 4.5 month post-Haiyan. The preliminary assessment showed that natural mangroves (except for those directly hit by the storm) were recovering by means of tree sprouts and surviving seedlings and saplings compared to the devastated plantation. Likewise, tree mortality was higher in the plantation and natural forests hit by the storm surge, compared to more undamaged and partially damaged trees in natural mangroves. Hence the main recommendations to government are (1) to protect recovering mangroves by not releasing rehabilitation funds (that will inadvertently pay for clearing of live treesand for removal of seedlings), (2) to only plant in totally damaged sites (e.g., plantations), and (3) to only plant naturally dominant species, e.g., Sonneratia alba and Avicennia marina instead of the popular Rhizophora(R.apiculata, R. mucronata and R. stylosa).

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X16303484
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 3.099

Florencio C. Ballesteros Jr.
Environmental Engineering Graduate Program
College of Engineering
UP Diliman

E-Waste Recycling Processes in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam: A Case Study of Cathode Ray Tube TVs and Monitors. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 106: 48–58, January 2016.

The amount of electronic waste (e-waste) is rapidly increasing due to economic growth and the advancement of information technology. End-of-life (EOL) cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and computer monitors make up the greatest proportion of the total mass of e-waste. Because of international trade in secondhand CRT TVs and monitors and the toxic substances contained in them, the EOL fate of CRTs is an emerging concern in developing countries. In this study, the recycling and treatment techniques of EOL CRT TVs/monitors were investigated in three Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam). The current recycling methods of CRT TVs/monitors in Japan and China were also reviewed for comparison. The process flows and destinations of materials or parts at both formal and informal recycling sites were compared. Among the three countries, only one formal facility in the Philippines has automated processing equipment for CRTs. CRT glass handled by informal sectors was illegally dumped or disposed of with regular municipal solid waste. Some waste CRT glass was also informally recycled as glass materials or exported to China. A number of recommendations are made to improve recycling conditions at both formal and informal recycling sites.

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092134491530118X
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 3.280

Maria Eliza R.Aguila
Department of Physical Therapy
College of Allied Medical Professions
UP Manila

The Association Between Clinical Characteristics of Migraine and Brain GABA Levels: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Pain, 17 (10): 1058-1067, October 2016.

Catchy title of research: Understanding the pain in migraine: Could a brain chemical be implicated?

Location of measurement of brain chemical.

Location of measurement of brain chemical.

People with migraine are among the most debilitated worldwide. Yet little is known about migraine that would make people with migraine understand their condition. Unsurprisingly, people with migraine lament about treatments being inadequate or ineffective. This study aimed at understanding migraine better by exploring the relationship between its clinical characteristics and a brain chemical, gamma-aminobutyric acid. Gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA, as it is commonly known, is the major inhibitory brain chemical that has a role in influencing pain. GABA has been previously shown by the same research team to be higher in people with migraine compared to those without headaches. GABA levels were measured in the brain (Photo 1) through a novel spectroscopy technique using an MRI scanner. This groundbreaking study is the first to explore the association of clinical characteristics with GABA levels in migraine. Results reveal that the higher the brain levels of GABA, the more intense the pain and the more frequent the central sensitization symptoms (Photo 2). These central sensitization symptoms are those that show abnormal, intense responsiveness of the brain. The results suggest including pain and central sensitization measures in assessing people with migraine. Results also support a role for GABA in migraine and its potential as a biomarker. Whether the role of GABA is related to how migraine starts, progresses or ends remains to be uncovered. Still, evidence from this study adds a piece to the migraine puzzle. The more puzzle pieces fitting together, the closer we get to effective targeted migraine treatments.

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1526590016301092
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 4.463

Ricky B. Nellas
Institute of Chemistry
College of Science
UP Diliman

DMSO Enhanced Conformational Switch of an Interfacial Enzyme. Biopolymers, 105 (12): 864–872, December 2016.

(a) An illustration of the lipase with the helices labeled and the gorge depicted in red.

(a) An illustration of the lipase with the helices labeled and the gorge depicted in red.

 

(b) The probability density of the gorge radius in various water:DMSO solvent systems.

(b) The probability density of the gorge radius in various water:DMSO solvent systems.

A unique aprotic dipolar organic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), has been shown to increase the activity of lipases, but the mechanism behind this enhancement is still unknown. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of lipase in a binary solution were performed to examine the effects of DMSO on the dynamics of the gating mechanism. Compared to the closed-gorge ensemble in an aqueous environment, the conformational ensemble shifts towards open-gorge structures in the presence of DMSO solvents. Increased width of the access channel is particularly prevalent in 45% and 60% DMSO concentrations (w/w). As the amount of DMSO increases, the α5 region of the lipase becomes more α-helical. We believe that the structural ordering of α5 plays an essential role on gating and lipase activity. 

Link the article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bip.22924/full
Impact Factor: (2015/2016) 2.248