IPA Recipients for October 2017

Ralph John de la Cruz and Agnes Paras
Institute of Mathematics
College of Science
UP Diliman

Skew ϕ Polar Decompositions. Linear Algebra and its Applications, 531: 129-140, 15 October 2017.

We determine when can we factor out a matrix A as a product of an orthogonal and a skew symmetric matrix, or as a product of a symplectic and a Hamiltonian matrix.

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379517303294
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.973

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Christian Joseph R. Cumagun
Institute of Weed Science, Entomology and Plant Pathology
College of Agriculture and Food Science
UP Los Baños

Evolution of the Wheat Blast Fungus through Functional Losses in a Host Specificity Determinant. Science, 357 (6346): 80-83, 7 July 2017.

Figure 1. Gene-for-gene interactions between Pyricularia oryzae isolates and gramineous plants. Avirulence gene – resistance gene pairs are indicated by bidirectional black arrows. Green arrows indicate compatible interactions. Hyphens indicate non-functional alleles.

Fig. 2. PWT3 and PWT4 serve as the host species specificity barrier for wheat. Spikes of wheat cultivars Norin 4 (N4), Chinese Spring (CS), Transfed (Tfed), and Hope were inoculated with wild types (WT) of Triticum (A), Lolium (B), and Avena (C) isolates; their transformants carrying introduced PWT3 (+3) or PWT4 (+4); and disruptants of PWT3 (D3), PWT4 (D4), or double disruptant (D3D4). Inoculated spikes were incubated for 8 days.

It is seldom in nature that pathogens, normally infecting a limited number of host species, can become pathogenic to new host. In this paper, we have uncovered an important link to a disease which left unchecked could prove devastating to wheat by identifying the genetic mechanism by which the blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae jumped host to wheat. The recurrent loss of function of the avirulence gene PWT3 of the P. oryzae was likely triggered by the widespread use of wheat cultivars lacking the cognate resistance gene Rwt3. As a result, host jump of the fungus from weeds to common wheat occurred. We conclude that the loss of an avirulence gene/resistance gene interaction results in host jump of the blast fungus to common wheat. Therefore, we recommend farmers to cultivate common wheat cultivars that carry both the resistance Rwt3 and Rwt4 to avoid reoccurrence of host jumps and prevent wheat blast disease caused by infection with weed pathogens.

Link to the article: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/357/6346/80
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 37.205

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Kristian Karlo C. Saguin
Department of Geography
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

Producing an Urban Hazardscape Beyond the City. Environment and Planning A, 49 (9): 1968-1985, September 2017.

The 2009 Ondoy and 2012/2013 Habagat floods in Metro Manila reveal the historical-geographical roots and the discursive imaginaries about cities, spaces and environments that are often obscured in reports about these disasters. This paper uses the case of stormwater flows and their infrastructural control in Metro Manila and Laguna Lake to trace how flood risk is produced, displaced and managed in cities. Keeping Metro Manila a flood-free city requires modern visions of control of nature and the production of non-city spaces such as Laguna Lake, where a significant volume of urban stormwater flows are displaced, magnifying risk for lake dwellers. The urban production of Laguna Lake as a flood hazardscape or landscape of risk also intersects with a long history of state efforts to develop the lake as an urban ecological frontier to supply the city with its various resource needs. Flood control in Metro Manila and Laguna Lake and the material-discursive production of risk therefore show how urbanization entails the transformation of landscapes and livelihoods in non-city spaces to enable the continued functioning of cities.

Link to the article: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0308518X17718373
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 1.389

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Dave Centeno
Cesar E.A. Virata School of Business
UP Diliman

Celebrities as Human Brands: An Inquiry on Stakeholder-Actor Co-Creation of Brand Identities. Journal of Business Research, 74: 133-138, May 2017.

Photo 1: The author, Dr. Dave Centeno (center) during his Ph.D. thesis defense at the City University of Hong Kong. The journal article “Celebrities as Human Brands” is part of his dissertation. In the photo are Dr. Centeno’s dissertation panel members Dr Amy WEN, Dr. Wenyu DOU, co-author and supervisor Dr. Jeff WANG, and Dr. Meng ZHANG

This paper examines the co-creation of human brands exemplified by celebrities in a stakeholder-actor approach. Combining theoretical frameworks of brand identity cocreation and stakeholder paradigms, demonstrates how human brand identities co-create by multiple stakeholder-actors who have resources and incentives in the activities that make up an enterprise of a human brand, including the celebrities themselves, consumer-fans, and business entities. By utilizing observational, archival netnographic data from popular social media platforms, four exemplars of celebrity identities demonstrate the co-creation of human brands. Findings illustrate key stakeholder-actors’ participation in the co-creation process as well as sociocultural codes, including social construction and negotiation of identities, parasocialization, influence projection, legitimization, and utilization of human brand identities. These human brand identity dynamics advance a stakeholder-actor paradigm of brand co-creation that adapts to the predominant consumer culture and human ideals that surround the celebrity. Results inform implications and future research on celebrity brand marketing management and co-creation.

Link to the article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296316306440
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 3.354

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Wilfredo V. Alangui
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
College of Science
UP Baguio

Ethnomathematics and Culturally Relevant Mathematics Education in the Philippines” in Ethnomathematics and its Diverse Approaches for Mathematics Education. Milton Rosa, Lawrence Shirley, Maria Elena Gavarrete and Wilfredo V. Alangui (editors). Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017.

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Christopher S. Cayco and Edward James R. Gorgon
Department of Physical Therapy
College of Allied Medical Professions
UP Manila

Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation on Balance, Strength, and Mobility of an Older Adult with Chronic Stroke: A Case Report. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 21 (4): 767-774, October 2017.

Forward walking with resistance to anterior pelvis.

Falls are a common and serious problem in older adults with stroke which leads to a cascade of other complications. Exercise and physical activity are known to be effective in treating fall-related impairments even late after the onset of stroke. Given the diversity of the patient needs however, no single approach appears to be the most effective. This study aimed to describe the effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF), a therapeutic approach incorporating the use of manual contact, resistance, high repetitions and goal oriented activities, on the strength, balance, and mobility of a 69 year old male who had a stroke 17 years ago. The patient received 1-hour PNF based out-patient therapy three times a week for six weeks. The patient’s treatment consisted of mat, sitting and standing exercises which were repeated until the patient felt fatigue (Photo 1). After 18 sessions the patient was re-evaluated. The patient showed clinically significant improvements on his balance, lower extremity strength and gait speed. There were also positive changes in the dimensions of his limits of stability (Photo 2). The results were attributed to the principles of PNF used in the plan of care: specificity of the training, relevance of the exercises and increased intensity of activity. The findings in this case report showed that PNF was safe and effective in improving strength, balance and mobility for this specific patient. PNF may be a possible option for clinicians to use in practice however its effectiveness in targeting other dimensions of falls risk warrants further investigation.

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136085921630256X
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Mildred A. Padilla
Department of Veterinary Paraclinical Sciences
College of Veterinary Medicine

High Level Resistance and Multi-Resistance to Medically Important Antimicrobials in Escherichia coli Isolated from Healthy Pigs at Slaughter in Laguna, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 54 (1): 36-45, 2017.

The widespread use of antimicrobials in animal production is recognized to contribute to antimicrobial resistance in humans as a result of transfer of resistant genes mainly through contaminated foods of animal origin. Antimicrobials used in animals in human medicine are the same therefore, resistance to medically important antimicrobials is a vital global health issue. This study investigated the susceptibility of Escherichia coliisolated from slaughter pigs to a panel of 12 antimicrobials used in human medicine. Samples of intestinal contentswere collected from 120 pigs at three abattoirs in Laguna province. High levels of resistance (95%) and multiple resistance (76.3%) to 3 or more antimicrobial classes were found. MOst common resistance was observedto chlorampenicol, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicilin and tetracycline. The resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and penicilins detected in the present study is alarming because these are the last resort drugs used for the treatment of serious human infections. The high level resistance of E. coli to medically important antimicrobials in different combinations raises concern about the potential spread of resistant E.coli to humans through consumption of contaminated pork. The findings emphasized the need for national surveilance of antimicrobial usage and resistance and for review of approvals of medically important antimicrobials for use in food-producing animals. A policy  is needed to restrict the use of last  resort antimicrobials in food animals so as not to undermine their effectiveness for the treatment of severe human diseases.

Link to the article: https://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/PJVM/article/view/1611/1442
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Leonila Corpuz-Raros
Institute of Weed Science
College of Agriculture and Food Science
UP Los Baños

To the Knowledge of the Genus Sadocephus (Acari, Oribatida, Compactozetidae). Ecologica Montenegrina, 11: 28-36, 2017.

Link to the article: https://biotaxa.org/em/issue/view/4407/showToc
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Leonila Corpuz-Raros
Institute of Weed Science
College of Agriculture and Food Science
UP Los Baños

New Ameroid Mites (Acari, Oribatida) from the Philippines. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 22 (7): 1069-1086, 2017.

Two new species of relatively rare families of Philippine oribatid mites were discovered, namely, Heterobelba quezonensis Ermilov & Corpuz-Raros of the family Heterobelbidae and Oxyamerus isabelaensis Ermilov and Corpuz- Raros of the family Oxyameridae. Both species were compared morphologically with the nearest species, and found to be different in a number of morphological characters, thus meriting their description as new species and given new names derived from their respective provinces of origin. Only 14 species of Heterobelba were known previously from the Oriental, Neotropical and Ethiopian zoogeographical regions while only 8 species were previously reported for the genus Oxyamerus in the Oriental and Australian regions. Altogether, two species of Heterobelba and three of Oxyamerus are now on record for the Philippine fauna. Revised diagnoses of both genera are provided taking into consideration characters found in the new Philippine species. H. quezonica belongs to a group of oribatids where the exuvium or molted skin of the previous stage remains attached by a button to the next stage and appears as a transparent, reticulate structure, as in Figure 1 with the tritonymphal exuvium covering the adult. It was collected from army ant nests (after following their major trails) in the U.P. Land Grant within the border of Laguna and Quezon provinces. This species is one of relatively few oribatids that are found in ant nests but the nature of its association with the ant itself in still unknown O. isabelaensis, on the other hand, was collected from forest liter in the vicinity of a complex of caves in a resort in Ilagan City, Isabela Province, that is being developed as a tourist destination. It was collected from several forest habitats in the area and appears to be widespread there.

Link to the article: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.11158/saa.22.7.14
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 1.467

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Fe M. dela Cueva and Manuela A. Samaco
Institute of Plant Breeding
College of Agriculture and Food Science
UP Los Baños

Disease Screening and Post-Entry Quarantine Program for Safe Introduction of Sugarcane Varieties in the Philippines. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences, 23 (1): 33-43, June 2017.

The Philippines is involved in the active exchange and import of foreign sugarcane varieties from countries such as Australia, Bangladesh, China, France, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mauritius, Thailand, USA, Japan, Vietnam and Pakistan, primarily for plant breeding purposes. Hence, a three-year quarantine and disease screening method was developed to safeguard the local sugarcane industry from unwanted diseases. In this study, 284 foreign varieties were obtained for the period of 2001- 2012. These were subjected to a 2-year disease screening inside the post-entry quarantine greenhouse at the Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines Los Baños, and 10 months in open-field conditions at Guimaras, Visayas. Upon arrival, sugarcane seed pieces from foreign sources were exposed to a cold soak and hot water treatment (CS-HWT) to eradicate disease-causing microorganisms. Moreover, antibody and molecular based assays were also used to check the presence of these microorganisms. The most common diseases detected were leaf scald, ratoon stunting and sugarcane mosaic from varieties originating from Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh, China, France, USA, Vietnam and Pakistan. Minor occurrence of smut, red rot, grassy shoot, sheath rot, Pokkah boeng and yellow leaf disease were also observed in varieties from Thailand, Indonesia, China, Australia, USA and Pakistan. These preliminary practices were proven effective in protecting the Philippine sugarcane industry against plant diseases.

Link to the article: http://www.issaas.org/journal/v23/01/journal-issaas-v23n1-04-dela-cueva-samaco.pdf
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Jonah L. Bondoc*, Lemuel V. Aragones** and Joseph Masangkay***
Natural Sciences Research Institute*
Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology**
College of Science
UP Diliman
Department of Veterinary Paraclinical Sciences***
College of Veterinary Medicine
UP Los Baños

Hematological, Macroscopic and Microscopic Findings in Two Stranded Whales (Mesoplodon densirostris and Kogia sima) and Possible Causes of Deaths. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 54 (1): 63-69, January-June 2017.

This adult male Blainville’s beaked whale, measuring 3.66 meters, was found swimming weakly near the shallow waters of Barangay 76-A, Bucana Boulevard, Davao City on April 15, 2014. It died few hours after stranding.

The second strander was a pregnant dwarf sperm whale measuring 2.15 meters. It was found on the sand adjacent to Jones Beach Resort in Barangay Talomo, Davao City. on July 23, 2014. This animal had numerous wounds in its body. It succumbed after almost 15 hours under rehabilitation.

The Philippines is home to a diverse marine mammal assemblage with 28 species of dolphins and whales, and a dugong1. Also, our country has a high frequency of marine mammal stranding events with an annual average of 591.  We have also been reported as one of the countries whose locals use stranded marine mammal tissues as human food source2. In view of these and in addition to a few number of Philippine researches that have been conducted on stranded cetaceans, we investigated the hematological, histopathological and post-mortem conditions of two whales, Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) and dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima), found stranded in Davao City, Philippines in 2014.
Supportive care was given to both animals during stranding but they died after a few hours under rehabilitation. Surgical examination and blood tests were conducted in Davao City while determination of tissue abnormalities was performed at the UP Los Baños. Severe iron deficiency (with low platelet and high lymphocyte counts) with secondary membranous glomerulopathy and endoparasitism-associated pneumonia was most likely the causative factors to the death of M. densirostris. Together with microthrombi formation, low levels of neutrophils and plasma volume but high platelet count were observed in K.sima. These may have debilitated and caused its death.  This is the first report with such findings in stranded whales.

1 Aragones LV, Laggui HLM, Amor AKS. 2017. The Philippine Marine Mammal Strandings from 2005 to 2016. A PMMSN Publication. Technical Report No.1. Quezon City, Philippines.
2 Robards, M.D., Reeves, R.R. (2011). The global extent and character of marine mammal consumption by humans: 1970-2009. Biological
Conservation, 144, 12, 2770-2786.

Link to the article: https://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/PJVM/article/viewFile/1615/1446
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Jervee M. Punzalan and Voltaire G. Organo
Department of Physical Sciences and Mathematics
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Manila

Are Aqueous Solutions of Amphiprotic Anions Acidic, Basic, or Neutral? A Demonstration with Common pH Indicators. Journal of Chemical Education, 94 (7): 911–915, 11 July 2017.

Colorimetric demonstration using pH indicators in illustrating the acidic or basic nature of common amphiprotic anions in aqueous solutions is presented. The demonstration is simple and offers a more visually and innovative approach for educators in teaching topics such as amphoterism, acid-base conjugates, equilibrium and hydrolysis. Typically, this demonstration can be completed in less than 10 minutes making it a feasible classroom activity suitable for senior high school or undergraduate students.

Link to the article: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00711
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 1.419

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Charlie E. Labarda and Meredith D. Labarda
School of Health Sciences
UP Manila

Hospital Resilience in the Aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. Disaster Prevention and Management, 26 (4): 424-436, 2017.

Resilient health facilities, particularly hospitals, are critical for a responsive local health system in post-disaster settings. This study looked at the experiences of two hospitals (public and private) in Tacloban City, Philippines in the aftermath of a super typhoon and their respective delivery of health services in such setting. The study described the impact of Typhoon Haiyan on health services delivery capacity and the factors instrumental in the resilience of the case hospitals. Lessons learned from the hospitals’ experiences, both at the level of the hospital staff and the institution, were also drawn. Disaster preparedness of case hospitals were assessed along several domains of resilience. Key informant interviews among stakeholders were conducted with key themes on disaster resilience extracted. Disaster preparedness scores for case hospitals were different from each other and were reflected in their experiences of health services delivery in the aftermath of the disaster. This study on hospital resilience of two case hospitals, in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, is exploratory in nature. The retrospective design of the study made it prone to recall bias. Further, the use of self-report measures for hospital resilience needs to be validated by more objective measures. The lack of baseline pre-disaster resilience indicators and the unpredictability of disasters could perhaps be addressed by a longitudinal study on hospital resilience in disasters in the future.

Link to the article: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/DPM-02-2017-0025
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.963

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