IPA Recipients for September 2017

Carl Abelardo T. Antonio and Emerito Jose Faraon
Department of Health Policy and Administration
College of Public Health
UP Manila

Smoking Prevalence and Attributable Disease Burden in 195 Countries and Territories, 1990–2015: A Systematic Analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet, 389 (10082): 1885-1906, 13–19 May 2017.

Catchy title of research: Nearly 1 billion people still smoke daily

Figure 1. Age-standardised prevalence of daily smoking for men (A) and women (B), in 2015
ATG=Antigua and Barbuda. VCT=Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. LCA=Saint Lucia. TTO=Trinidad and Tobago. TLS=Timor-Leste. FSM=Federated States of Micronesia.

Despite strong declines in the rate of tobacco smoking over the past 25 years, one out of every four men still smoke daily, as do one out of every 20 women.
The prevalence of daily smoking declined on a global scale – decreasing by 28% for men and 34% for women between 1990 and 2015.
But while the rate of smoking has fallen over the past few decades, the number of daily smokers globally continues to rise year-over-year due to population growth. As of 2015, there were 933 million daily smokers. The three countries with the most male daily smokers in 2015 accounted for over half of all men who smoked daily worldwide. Countries with the most male daily smokers in 2015 were China with 254 million, India with 91 million, and Indonesia with 50 million.
The three countries with the highest number of female daily smokers in 2015 accounted for just over 25% of all female daily smokers worldwide. Countries with the most female daily smokers in 2015 were the Unites States with 17 million, followed by China with 14 million, and India with 13.5 million. These results suggest that the tobacco smoking epidemic is less geographically concentrated for women than for men, with implications that global efforts may need to be different to reach male smokers compared to female smokers.

Link to the article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014067361730819X
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 47.831

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Carl Abelardo T. Antonio and Emerito Jose Faraon
Department of Health Policy and Administration
College of Public Health
UP Manila

Child and Adolescent Health From 1990 to 2015 Findings From the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2015 Study. JAMA Pediatrics, 171 (6): 573-592, June 2017. 

Catchy title of research: Global decline in deaths among children, adolescents but progress uneven

 

Ranking of the Top 25 Global Causes of Death in 2015 by 5 Socio-demographic Index (SDI) Quintiles and 21 Regions in the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) Ranking of causes of death in females and males. Global causes, SDI quintiles, and GBD regions appear in columns, sorted in order of decreasing SDI status. The causes are sorted according to their ranking at the global level. The color coding indicates the relative ranking of each cause, with red the highest and green the lowest. The numbers appearing in each column indicate the geography-specific ranking of that cause in 2015. Blanks indicate causes that were not contracted in that geographical area. HIV indicates human immunodeficiency virus.

Leading Level 3 Causes of Global Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) in the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study This figure shows the rankings for the top 25 causes of global disability-adjusted life years among children and adolescents 19 years or younger at the global level in 1990, 2005, and 2015. Lines connecting the boxes illustrate changes in ranking. Any cause that appears in the top 25 in any year is listed, along with its ranking during each year. Group I causes (infectious, neonatal, nutritional, and maternal) are shown in gray, noncommunicable diseases in red, and injuries in green. Changes in total DALYs are in the first column next to 2005, followed by changes in all-ages rates of DALYs, and age-standardized rates of DALYs. Statistically significant differences appear in bold. HIV indicates human immunodeficiency virus, and STI, sexually transmitted infection.

Expected Association Between Rates of Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived With Disability (YLD) Rates With Socio-demographic Index (SDI) for 21 Level 2 Causes in the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD)
A, Expected association between rates of YLL and YLD with SDI for the 21 GBD level 2 causes in children and adolescents 19 years or younger, both sexes, 1990-2015. Each geography is assigned an SDI value for each year, and nonlinear spline regressions are used to find the average relationship between SDI and cause-specific burden rates. B, Expected association between rates of YLL and YLD and SDI for the 21 GBD level 2 causes as a proportion of total rates of YLL and YLD in children and adolescents 19 years or younger, both sexes, 1990-2015. Each geographical area is assigned an SDI value for each year, and nonlinear spline regressions are used to find the mean association between SDI and cause-specific rates of disease burden. HIV indicates human immunodeficiency virus.[/caption]Deaths among children and adolescents decreased worldwide from nearly 14.2 million deaths in 1990 to just over 7.2 million deaths in 2015 but this global progress has been uneven. Included among the most common causes of death globally were neonatal preterm birth complications, lower respiratory tract infections, diarrheal diseases, congenital anomalies, malaria, neonatal sepsis, meningitis, and HIV/AIDS, according to the report. Countries with lower SDIs had a greater share of the burden of death in 2015 compared with 1990, while the most deaths among children and adolescents occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.

The report speculates one reason for growing inequality of disease among children and adolescents may be that geographical areas with the lowest SDIs have historically not received significant development assistance for health. (from the official press release)

Link to the article: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/2613463
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 10.251

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Eric Julian D. Manalastas and Beatriz A. Torre
Department of Psychology
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

Homonegativity in Southeast Asia: Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 17 (1): 25-33, June 2017. 

Catchy title of research: Malaysians, Indonesians most homophobic in Southeast Asia

Lesbians and gay men face the strongest homophobic prejudice in Malaysia and Indonesia within Southeast Asia, based on data from six countries in the region.
Findings from the World Values Survey indicate that many Southeast Asians reject lesbians or gay men as neighbors, with the strongest homophobic attitudes to be found in Indonesia (66%) and Malaysia (59%). Other countries like Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, and the Philippines had more LGBT-friendly attitudes.
Unlike previous studies that focus on biased samples, this study provides evidence for the levels of social acceptance of homosexuality in Southeast Asia using nationally representative data.

Link to the article: https://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=11507
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Gerry M. Lanuza
Department of Sociology
College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
UP Diliman

Making and Selling the “Rock Star Pope”: The Celebritization of Pope Francis during His Five-Day Visit to the Philippines. Humanities Diliman, 14 (1): 1-45, January-June 2017.

Figure 1. A picture showing the installation of Pope Benedict in 2005 and Pope Francis in 2013. From: http://petapixel.com/2013/03/14/a-starry-sea-of-cameras-at-the-unveiling-of-pope-francis/.

This paper is an attempt to provide an analysis of the celebritization and celebrification of Pope Francis when he visited the Philippines from January 15 to 19, 2015. Celebritization is a social process of creating a rock star or an icon out of an ordinary person through the mediation of mass media.  Employing the analytic concept of “culture industry” developed by the members of the Frankfurt School, and combining it with the current analyses in existing celebrity study under late capitalism, this paper will show how the local giant media corporations, namely, GMA and ABS-CBN, staged a grand “media event” that nationally mediatized and publicly magnified the celebrity status of the so-called “rock star Pope.” Culture industry is the manufacturing of a symbolic icon for mass consumption. The current study contributes to the growing literature on celebrity study by focusing on the popular and charismatic religious leader of 1.2 billion Catholics worldwide. Toward the end of this paper, consistent with the critical slant of the Frankfurt School’s [a Marxist tradition] critique of mass deception, it is argued that the celebrity culture that created the “spectacle” of Pope Francis must be distinguished from his prophetic message. And this must be explored in future studies.

Link to the article: http://journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/humanitiesdiliman
Impact Factor: Not yet available

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Daniel Edison M. Husana
Institute of Biological Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Diliman

Stable Carbon Isotope Compositions of Foot Tissue, Conchiolin Opercula, and Organic Matrix within the Shells of Two Marine Gastropods from a Seagrass Meadow in the Philippines. Geochemical Journal, 51: 241-250, 2017.

Live coloration of Cernina fluctuata (Sowerby, 1825).

Seagrass bed in Cuyo Island, Palawan, the Philippines.

Gastropods (Mollusca) have exploited a wide variety of food resources over the course of their evolutionary history. This study evaluated the food sources of two marine gastropod species, Polinices mammilla  (family Naticidae) and Cernina fluctuata  (family Ampullinidae) collected from a lower tidal flat in Cuyo Island, the Philippines using stable isotope analysis method. Naticidae is a well-known family of predatory gastropods that prey upon mollusks by drilling their shells. Naticids and their predatory drill holes have long fossil records that can be traced back to the mid-Mesozoic era, and evolutionary studies have extensively discussed their predator-prey interactions. However diets are often difficult to infer from the preserved hard components of fossilized gastropods. Studies of predatory traces, such as drill holes on prey shells, provide indirect evidence for the diets of predatory gastropods but also difficult to show a definite relationship between the drillers and drill holes. On the other hand, analyses of the phylogenetic affinities of the target animals with their nearest living relatives provide indirect evidence about their diet, but their affinities with living relatives decrease with time following extinction. Upon analyses of the foot tissue, conchiolin opercula, and the shell organic matrix from the extant marine gastropods, this study confirmed that the herbivorous C. fluctuata consumes autotrophs such as macrobenthic marine plants and algae whereas P. mammilla may derive carbon from epiphytes and phytoplankton via their bivalve prey.

Link to the article: https://www.terrapub.co.jp/journals/GJ/abstract/5103/51030241.html
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.991

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Arthur L. Fajardo
Institute of Agricultural Engineering
College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology
UP Los Baños

Puddling Performance of Different Tilling Wheel Designs of the Float-Assisted Tiller in a Laboratory Soil Bin Set-Up. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 100 (2): 143-149, June 2017.

The three tilling wheel designs used in the study.

The float-assisted tiller is popular equipment used for puddling paddy fields in the Philippines.  The main advantage of using this tiller is lower cost per hectare compared to traditional plowing and harrowing. Different designs of float-assisted tiller have been developed and are available in the market. However, only a few studies have been published regarding float-assisted tiller design modifications and corresponding performance evaluation. 
The study aimed to determine and compare the puddling performance of three designs (coded as TW1, TW2 and TW3) of tilling wheel for float-assisted tiller. The tilling wheels were operated at different shaft speeds (200, 250 and 300 rpm). The experiments were done using a single tilling wheel in a laboratory set up using Maahas clay. Performance index was used as a measure of puddling performance.
Performance index was affected by the tilling wheel design, shaft speed, number of passes and the combination of number of passes and shaft speed. Performance index was not significant between TW1 and TW2 but significant between shaft speeds and number of passes. Performance index was relatively higher with TW3 on the 1st pass for all shaft speeds.
The best design of tilling wheel among the three tilling wheel designs is TW3 based on obtained performance index. It is recommended to verify results under actual field condition.

Link to the article: 
Impact Factor: (2016/2017) 0.248

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