Most studies about organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) focus on actions that employees, supervisors, or owners of organizations should exhibit. OCB refers to behaviors exhibited by employees that go beyond their formal job requirements, contributing positively to the success of the organization. In the context of the hospitality industry, frontline employees’ OCB plays a crucial role in determining customer satisfaction, as the quality of service depends largely on them. To encourage OCB in service-oriented Filipino organizations, this paper proposes a classification of OCB antecedents collected from the literature in theory and industry practice.

This study draws on the stakeholder theory and self-efficacy theory as the theoretical foundation for classifying OCB antecedents. The stakeholder theory emphasizes the influence of various stakeholders, including employees, leaders, the organization, and HR departments, on reaching organizational goals. In contrast, the self-efficacy theory explores the individuals’ belief in their capability to perform specific behaviors. By using the stakeholder and self-efficacy theories, the proposed four clearly defined categories point out whether these antecedents are employee-led, leader-led, organization-led, or HR-led initiatives.

Employee-led initiatives encompass behaviors and actions initiated by employees themselves while leader-led initiatives are leadership behaviors that elicit positive or negative employee behavior. Organization-led initiatives are values and practices that shape organizational culture and, thus, affect employee behavior. Lastly, HR-led initiatives are HR practices that can encourage OCB among employees.

By categorizing OCB antecedents, this study provides individuals with valuable insights into identifying behavioral aspects within their control. Employees can use this knowledge to proactively engage in OCB, leading to a positive organizational climate. For managers, understanding the various antecedents allows for the implementation of targeted strategies to foster OCB within the organization.

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