IPA Awardees for October 2012

Corazon L. Rapera
College of Agriculture

UP Los Baños

Revealed willingness to pay for safe drinking water of households in three towns of Laguna Province, Philippines. Bandoles, G.B. & C.L. Rapera. 2013. Asia Life Sciences 22(1):113-130.

In 2008, it was widely observed that many households in the towns of Los Banos, Bay, and Calauan in Laguna Province regularly bought and drank purified drinking water despite having piped water in their homes. What were the reasons for this behavior and how much were these households spending as a result of the type or source of their drinking water? When 392 randomly selected households located in the less-affluent areas of the above-mentioned towns were surveyed, it was learned that 72% of the respondents perceived piped water as unsafe for drinking, especially by infants and young children, because of water clarity, odor, taste, and purity concerns. Because of these, households drank either (a) filtered piped water only (7.1%), (b) decanted piped water after sediments had settled only (1.8%), (c) boiled piped water only (2.3%), (d) home-purified piped water only (2%),(e) commercially-purified water only (40.1%), or (f) water fetched from nearby deep well pumps only (0.5%). The rest drank either plain piped water only (27.6%) or a combination of two or more water types (18.6%).The total cost of averting measures of sample households or the minimum amount these households were willing to spend to ensure the safeness of their drinking water was PhP14,l 17 per week or PhP36 per week per avertive household. Extrapolated to apply proportionally to all potential avertive households with piped water in the three municipalities across all income classes, the estimated minimum total willingness to pay for safe drinking water was PhP37.98 million per year.

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/ALS/article/view/790

Patrick D. Flores
College of Arts and Letters

UP Diliman

The Long Take: Passage as Form in the Philippine Film. Patrick D. Flores. 2012. The Long Take: Passage as Form in the Philippine Film. Kritika Kultura. Number 19, pp. 70-89

The article reflects on the various modes of editing in Philippine Cinema, with the films Manila by Night, Gabun, and Kinatay as case studies.

Link to the article: http://kritikakultura.ateneo.net

Rolando B. Tolentino
College of Mass Communication
UP Diliman

Marcos, Brocka, Bernal, City Films, and the Contestation for Imagery of Nation. Kritika Kultura: a refereed electronic journal of literary/cultural and language studies.

The Marcos era yielded an official image of Manila and the nation, imbued with what Imelda referred to as “the true, the good, and the beautiful.” However, as provided for the in the city films of Brocka and Bernal, the city and nation of the Marcoses were highly contested. The essay provides a cognitive and historical mapping of the contestation for the city and nation.

Link to the article:  http://kritikakultura.ateneo.net/images/pdf/kk19/marcos.pdf

Sarah S. Raymundo
Center for International Studies
UP Diliman

In the Womb of the Global Economy: Anak and the Construction of Transnational Imaginaries. Sarah Raymundo . 2011. Positions volume19, number 2,  551-579

Isang panandang bato ang Anak ni Dir..Rory Quintos at ng Star Cinema sa larangan ng produksyon ng pelikulang OFW na unang ipinalabas noong 2000 dito sa Pilipinas at sa iba’t-ibang bahagi ng daigdig kung saan maraming OFW. Isa itong marka ng paglawak sa tema sa larangan ng pelikulang popular, sangkot ang produksyon ng “diasporic cinema” o sineng hinggil sa paglalayag. Matutunghayan sa Anak at sa pagsusuri rito ang ugnayan ng neoliberal na polisiya at ang pagtatransporma ng mga ito bilang kultural na pagpapahalaga sa pamamagitan ng behikulo ng pelikula. Sangkot ang mga diskurso ng naratibo ng imperyalismo, pambansang pantasya, binansot na pagkamamamayan bilang ideolohikal na konteksto sa pagbibigay resolusyon sa mga representasyon ng pagkababae, ligalig, lungkot, at maternal na sakripisyo. Ang mga ito ay ang nagpapagana sa sa isang ekonomiyang biswal na nakabatay naman sa feminization of labor sa pandaigdigang kapitalismo. Hindi lamang binubura ng ganitong pagsasapelikula ang aktwal na danas ng mga OFWs. Tahsan din itong katunggali ng pandaigdigang kilusan ng pagkakaisa sa hanay ng mga OFWs na lampas sa pagsasalarawan ng sine ay nagsimula nang

Link to the article: http://positions.dukejournals.org/content/19/2/551.abstract

Lourdes Marie S. Tejero
College of Nursing
UP Manila

The mediating role of the nurse-patient dyad bonding in bringing about patient satisfaction. Journal of Advanced Nursing 68(5): 994-1002.

“When patient characteristics and nurse competencies are in synergy, optimal patient outcomes are likely to occur.” (Curley 2007, p.2)* When the patient’s needs are appropriately addressed by nurse’s skills, the results are most favourable. In this paper, it is posited that the characteristics of the nurse and the patient synergize during their interaction, forming nurse–patient dyad bonding that affects patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is regarded as a critical part of the quality outcomes in healthcare. A total of 210 nurse–patient dyadic interactions were observed using the Nurse–Patient Bonding Instrument. Nurse characteristics and patient characteristics were gathered through observation, interview and chart review. Data were collected in 2008 from four hospitals in Manila, Philippines. Path analysis revealed that the patient characteristic of predictability (response to treatment) had both direct effect and indirect effects on patient satisfaction, and that the nurse characteristic of facilitation of learning had an indirect effect on patient satisfaction. Nurse–patient dyad bonding mediated the relations between patient predictability and patient satisfaction, and nurse facilitation of learning and patient satisfaction.
The nurse and the patient both have a role to play in forming a therapeutic dyadic relationship that brings about the desired outcome. Further research on the formation and development of nurse–patient dyads in other settings and with other patient outcomes is recommended.

*Curley M.A.Q. (2007) Synergy: the Unique Relationship between Nurses and Patients. Sigma Theta Tau International, Indianapolis 1-290.

Francesca Celine Catalan, Anne Margarette Maallo and Percival Almoro
College of Science

National Institute of Physics
UP Diliman

Fringe analysis and enhanced characterization of sub-surface defects using fringe-shifted shearograms. Optics Communications Volume 285, Issues 21-22, October 2012, pp. 4223 – 4226.

Digital shearography (DS) yields shearograms, which can be processed on a computer to generate information about an object under study. For example, the nature of the material’s response to stress can be inferred from the general features of the shearograms. However, there are instances when visual inspection is not enough in analyzing a system. This research proposes the use of the differences between the local statistical properties of the shearograms. These values can be used in pinpointing certain features of the object under study. For example, in Photo 1 above, a scratch underneath the surface of a vinyl is revealed in the contrast map. In Photo 2, the contact point is located even with just minimal loading. This numerical processing technique is less complex than other numerical methods and can be applied to data from other types of optical tests. This research can improve quality control tests and has potential applicability to industry-grade examination of samples.

Link to the article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2012.06.020


Ceferino P. Maala, Rio John T. Ducusin
College of Veterinary
UP Los Baños

Anatomy of the Intermandibular Region of the Philippine Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Maala CP, Hyung J and Ducusin RJT. 2012.  Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine 49 (1): 1-7

The gross anatomy of the intermandibular region of the Philippine water buffalo (carabao) was studied using five heads of adult carabaos of both sexes. The result of the study revealed that the intermandibular region in the carabao was approximately 28.0-30.0 cm long, 2.0-4.0 cm wide rostrally, 7.0-10.0 cm wide at the middle and 11.0-
15.0 cm wide caudally. The skin over this region was 1.0-1.5 cm thick rostrally, 0.4-1.0 cm thick at the middle and 0.2-0.4 cm thick caudally. The hairs were long and thick measuring from 1.5-5.0 cm long. Superficially, the intermandibular region in this animal was largely occupied by the sternomandibularis, omohyoideus and sternohyoideus muscles caudally and by the mylohyoideus muscles in the rostral two-thirds. Deep to these muscles was the digastricus muscle. Dorsal to these muscles was the massive
tongue which measured 30.0-35.0 cm long, 1.5- 2.0 cm thick at its apex, 5.0-5.5 cm thick at the body and 7.0-8.0 cm thick at the torus linguae. The thick skin covering the intermandibular region and the massive tongue pose big problems when approaching the oral cavity for clinical examinations and surgery in this animal.

Link to the article: http://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/PJVM/article/view/739

Junie B. Billones and Vivien Cherie C. Uy
College of Arts and Sciences
UP Manila

Towards antituberculosis drugs: virtual screening for potential inhibitors of pantothenate synthetase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Uy, V.C.C.; Billones, J.B. (2012). Philippine Science Letters. 5 (2): 122-130.

Tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), has infected more than one third of the world’s population. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about 9.4 million TB cases emerged in 2009 including 1.1 million cases among people with HIV. TB caused 0.38 million deaths among HIV-positive people and 1.3 million deaths among those who are negative of HIV. The current treatment of TB involves primarily the use of Isoniazid and Rifampicin and other first-line drugs such as Streptomycin, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol. Unfortunately, the use of these drugs also led to an increased number of strains, which are multi-drug resistant (MDR TB) and extensively drug resistant (XDR TB). It is therefore imperative to discover and develop compounds against these drug resistant MTB.
One attractive target for MTB inhibition is an enzyme named pantothenate synthetase (PS), which catalyzes the production of Vitamin B5. Humans, unlike bacteria, do not have the PS enzyme, thus they obtain Vitamin B5 through the diet. Because the enzyme is not present in humans, PS is a good target for drugs against TB. In fact, several studies in recent past are focused on this enzyme as useful drug target. In this study, we performed virtual screening of over 300,000 synthetic and natural compounds based on the three-dimensional structure of PS. We further modified the top hits and obtained several structures with drug- like properties that are better than the natural
binder and known active compounds.

Link to the article: http://www.philsciletters.org/article.2012n2.14p15.htm

Carla Dimalanta
National Institute of Geological Sciences
College of Science
UP Diliman

Tropical cyclone-southwest monsoon interaction and the 2008 floods and landslides in Panay island, central Philippines: meteorological and geological factors. Natural Hazards, 62(3): 827-840, July 2012.

The interaction of the tropical storm Fengshen (Frank) with the southwest monsoon in 2008 led to an intensified rainfall in the Philippines, particularly in the Panay Island with recorded 354 mm maximum rainfall in Iloilo City. Consequently, overflowing of major rivers in Iloilo, Antique, Aklan, and Capiz also occurred, which were also attributed to the thickening of sediments in the river bed, high tide, and presence of artificial damming. Landslides are characterized by shallow rock slides, flows, and falls, and are associated with steep slopes (greater than 30°). Lithologies of affected areas are composed of highly sheared volcanic and sedimentary rocks covered by loose soil. In some cases, these areas were converted to agricultural use in form of terraces, which may have reduced the surface covering and diminished the soil structure, making it more susceptible to erosion. Thickly forested areas were also affected by landslides, uprooting large trees which caused devastating infrastructural damages. As a result, budget allocation had to be diverted from development to rehabilitation.
Availability of hydro-meteorological and hazard maps of appropriate scale are therefore necessary in improving land use and disaster risk management. Local warning systems, response and evacuation protocols must be set in place in order to limit damages to minimum.

Link to the article: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11069-012-0109-5
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